CALIFORNIA CIVIL DISCOVERY LAW
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CIVIL DISCOVERY ACT

CODE OF CIVIL PROCEDURE : Sections 2016-2036
Always check for updates at the Legislature's site  http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/calaw.html

Production of Evidence C.C.P.§§ 1985 -2015.6  http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/codes_displayexpandedbranch.xhtml 
Civil Discovery Act  C.C.P. §§2016 - 2036     http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/codes_displayexpandedbranch.xhtml

PRIVILEGES  Evidence Code  §§900-1036    http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/codesTOCSelected.xhtml

GENERAL PROVISIONS
GENERAL PROVISIONS ATTORNEY WORK PRODUCT
SCOPE OF DISCOVERY SANCTIONS
METHODS & SEQUENCE
COMPLETION OF DISCOVERY


SPECIFIC DISCOVERY DEVICES
SEE   General Discovery Provisions
See Also Conversion Table
from prior section numbers prepared by
California Law Revision Commission



DEPOSITIONS IN STATE C.C.P. §2025
INTERROGATORIES C.C.P. §2030
 NON-PARTY DEPOSITION DISCOVERY C.C.P. §2020 DOCUMENT PRODUCTION C.C.P.§2031
DEPOSITION OUT OF STATE C.C.P. §2026 MEDICAL EXAMINATION C.C.P. §2032
DEPOSITION OUT OF COUNTRY C.C.P. §2027 REQUEST FOR ADMISSION C.C.P. §2033
DEPOSITION ON WRITTEN QUESTIONS. C.C.P. §2028 EXPERT WITNESS INFORMATION C.C.P.§2034
DEPOSITION IN OUT OF STATE ACTION. C.C.P. §2029 PERPETUATION OF TESTIMONY C.C.P. §2035-6

GENERAL PROVISIONS
SPECIFIC DISCOVERY DEVICES:
depositions, interrogatories, document production, expert disclosure, admissions, medical exams
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GENERAL PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 1.GENERAL PROVISIONS

§ 2016.010. Title: "Civil Discovery Act"
§ 2016.020. Definitions: "action", "court",  "document"
§ 2016.030. Party stipulations to modify procedures
§ 2016.040. Meet and confer declaration content
§ 2016.050. Time Computation: CCP §1013 applies
§ 2016.060. Time Computation: weekends and holidays
§ 2016.070. Discovery in aid of enforcement of money judgment

CHAPTER 4. ATTORNEY WORK PRODUCT

§ 2018.010. “Client” defined
§ 2018.020. Policy underlying work product
§ 2018.030. Absolute & Qualified Work Product
§ 2018.040. Section does not change case law
§ 2018.050. Lawyer suspected of crime or fraud
§ 2018.060. In camera hearing
                  See Also:   Evid.Code §912
§ 2018.070. Discovery by State Bar
§ 2018.080. Action between attorney and client


CHAPTER 2. SCOPE OF DISCOVERY

§ 2017.010. Scope of discovery: relevant, not privileged
§ 2017.020. Protective Order Limiting Scope of Discovery: cost / benefit;  balancing of interests; meet & confer; sanctions
§ 2017.210. Insurance coverage: existence, contents, limits
§ 2017.220. Sexual conduct
§ 2017.310. Elder Abuse Confidential settlement agreement disfavored
§ 2017.320. Elder Abuse information protected by stipulated protective order


CHAPTER 7. SANCTIONS

See also sanctions provisions for each device

§ 2023.010. Misuses of discovery process include
§ 2023.020. Sanctions for failure to confer as required
§ 2023.030. Other sanctions for misuse of discovery
§ 2023.040. Content of Notice, Declaration, & Memorandum


CHAPTER 5. METHODS AND SEQUENCE

§ 2019.010. Methods of discovery listed
§ 2019.020. Any Sequence; no priority or stay by initiating
§ 2019.030. Protective Order by party or non-party to limit
§ 2019.210. Trade Secret identification before discovery


CHAPTER 8.TIME FOR COMPLETION

§ 2024.010. Discovery "completed" on due date or day depo begins
§ 2024.020. Discovery cutoff
§ 2024.030. Discovery cutoff for expert witness
§ 2024.040. Exceptions to discovery cutoff
§ 2024.050. Motion to extend or reopen discovery
§ 2024.060. Agreement extending discovery cutoff: writing & specific date

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CIVIL DISCOVERY ACT

2016 .010. This title may be cited as the "Civil Discovery Act."

2016 .020. As used in this title:
(a) "Action" includes a civil action and a special proceeding of a civil nature.
(b) "Court" means the trial court in which the action is pending, unless otherwise specified.
(c) "Document" and "writing" mean a writing, as defined in Section 250 of the Evidence Code.
(d) "Electronic"means relating to technology having electrical, digital, magnetic, wireless, optical, electromagnetic, or similar  capabilities.
(e) "Electronically stored information" means information that is stored in an electronic medium.

 2016 .030. Unless the court orders otherwise, the parties may by written stipulation modify the procedures provided by this title for any method of discovery permitted under Section 2019.010.

 MEET & CONFER DECLARATION

2016 .040. A meet and confer declaration in support of a motion shall state facts showing a reasonable and good faith attempt at an informal resolution of each issue presented by the motion.

 EXTRA TIME / SERVICE BY MAIL

2016 .050. Section 1013 applies to any method of discovery or service of a motion provided for in this title.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 EXTENSION FOR HOLIDAY

2016 .060. When the last day to perform or complete any act provided for in this title falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or holiday as specified in Section 10, the time limit is extended until the next court day closer to the trial date.

2016 .070. This title applies to discovery in aid of enforcement of a money judgment only to the extent provided in Article 1 (commencing with Section 708.010) of Chapter 6 of Title 9 of Part 2.

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SCOPE OF DISCOVERY
C.C.P. 2017.010

2017.010.

Unless otherwise limited by order of the court in accordance with this title, 
any party may obtain discovery regarding
any matter, not privileged, that is relevant to the subject matter involved in the pending action or to the determination of any motion made in that action, if the matter either is itself admissible in evidence or appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. Discovery may relate to the claim or defense of the party seeking discovery or of any other party to the action. Discovery may be obtained of the identity and location of persons having knowledge of any discoverable matter, as well as of the existence, description, nature, custody, condition, and location of any document, electronically stored information, tangible thing, or land or other property.

 PROTECTIVE ORDERS

2017.020.

(a) The court shall limit the scope of discovery if it 
determines that the burden, expense, or intrusiveness of that
discovery clearly outweighs the likelihood that the information sought will lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. The court may make this determination pursuant to a motion for protective order by a party or other affected person. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040. (b) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion for a protective order, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust. (c) (1) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), or any other section of this title, absent exceptional circumstances, the court shall not impose sanctions on a party or any attorney of a party for failure to provide electronically stored information that has been lost, damaged, altered, or overwritten as the result of the routine, good faith operation of an electronic information system. (2) This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any obligation to preserve discoverable information.
DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 INSURANCE

2017.210. A party may obtain discovery of the existence and contents of any agreement under which any insurance carrier may be liable to satisfy in whole or in part a judgment that may be entered in the action or to indemnify or reimburse for payments made to satisfy the judgment. This discovery may include the identity of the carrier and the nature and limits of the coverage. A party may also obtain discovery as to whether that insurance carrier is disputing the agreement's coverage of the claim involved in the action, but not as to the nature and substance of that dispute. Information concerning the insurance agreement is not by reason of disclosure admissible in evidence at trial.

 SEXUAL CONDUCT

2017.220. (a) In any civil action alleging conduct that constitutes sexual harassment, sexual assault, or sexual battery, any party seeking discovery concerning the plaintiff's sexual conduct with individuals other than the alleged perpetrator shall establish specific facts showing that there is good cause for that discovery, and that the matter sought to be discovered is relevant to the subject matter of the action and reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. This showing shall be made by a noticed motion, accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016 .040, and shall not be made or considered by the court at an ex parte hearing.

(b) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion for discovery under subdivision (a), unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

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 ELDER ABUSE SETTLEMENTS

2017 .310. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, it is the policy of the State of California that confidential settlement agreements are disfavored in any civil action the factual foundation for which establishes a cause of action for a violation of the Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act (Chapter 11(commencing with Section 15600) of Part 3 of Division 9 of the Welfare and Institutions Code).
(b) Provisions of a confidential settlement agreement described in subdivision (a) may not be recognized or enforced by the court absent a showing of any of the following: (1) The information is privileged under existing law. (2) The information is not evidence of abuse of an elder or dependent adult, as described in Sections 15610.30, 15610.57, and 15610.63 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. (3) The party seeking to uphold the confidentiality of the information has demonstrated that there is a substantial probability that prejudice will result from the disclosure and that the party's interest in the information cannot be adequately protected through redaction.
(c) Nothing in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subdivision (b) permits the sealing or redacting of a defendant's name in any information made available to the public.
(d) Except as expressly provided in this section, nothing in this section is intended to alter, modify, or amend existing law.
(e) Nothing in this section may be deemed to prohibit the entry or enforcement of that part of a confidentiality agreement, settlement agreement, or stipulated agreement between the parties that requires the nondisclosure of the amount of any money paid in a settlement of a claim.
(f) Nothing in this section applies to or affects an action for professional negligence against a health care provider.

DISCOVERY  ACT  TABLE

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2017 .320. (a) In any civil action the factual foundation for which establishes a cause of action for a violation of the Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act (Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 15600) of Part 3 of Division 9 of the Welfare and Institutions Code), any information that is acquired through discovery and is protected from disclosure by a stipulated protective order shall remain subject to the protective order, except for information that is evidence of abuse of an elder or dependent adult as described in Sections 15610.30, 15610.57, and 15610.63 of the Welfare and Institutions Code.
(b) In that instance, after redacting information in the document that is not evidence of abuse of an elder or dependent adult as described in Sections 15610.30, 15610.57, and 15610.63 of the Welfare and Institutions Code, a party may file that particularized information with the court. The party proposing to file the information shall offer to meet and confer with the party from whom the information was obtained at least one week prior to filing that information with the court.
(c) The filing party shall give concurrent notice of the filing with the court and its basis to the party from whom the information was obtained.
(d) Any filed information submitted to the court shall remain confidential under any protective order for 30 days after the filing and shall be part of the public court record thereafter, unless an affected party petitions the court and shows good cause for a court protective order.
(e) The burden of showing good cause shall be on the party seeking the court protective order.
(f) A stipulated protective order may not be recognized or enforced by the court to prevent disclosure of information filed with the court pursuant to subdivision (b), absent a showing of any of the following: (1) The information is privileged under existing law. (2) The information is not evidence of abuse of an elder or dependent adult as described in Sections 15610.30, 15610.57, and 15610.63 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. (3) The party seeking to uphold the confidentiality of the information has demonstrated that there is a substantial probability that prejudice will result from the disclosure and that the party's interest in the information cannot be adequately protected through redaction. (g) If the court denies the petition for a court protective order, it shall redact any part of the filed information it finds is not evidence of abuse of an elder or dependent adult, as described in Sections 15610.30, 15610.57, and 15610.63 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. Nothing in this subdivision or in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subdivision (f) permits the sealing or redacting of a defendant's name in any information made available to the public.
(h) Nothing in this section applies to or affects an action for professional negligence against a health care provider.

 WORK PRODUCT
C.C.P.§ 2018

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 2018 .010. For purposes of this chapter, "client" means a "client" as defined in Section 951 of the Evidence Code.

 2018 .020. It is the policy of the state to do both of the following:
(a) Preserve the rights of attorneys to prepare cases for trial with that degree of privacy necessary to encourage them to prepare their cases thoroughly and to investigate not only the favorable but the unfavorable aspects of those cases.
(b) Prevent attorneys from taking undue advantage of their adversary's industry and efforts.

 2018 .030. (a) A writing that reflects an attorney's impressions, conclusions, opinions, or legal research or theories is not discoverable under any circumstances.
(b) The work product of an attorney, other than a writing described in subdivision (a), is not discoverable unless the court determines that denial of discovery will unfairly prejudice the party seeking discovery in preparing that party's claim or defense or will result in an injustice.

2018 .040. This chapter is intended to be a restatement of existing law relating to protection of work product. It is not intended to expand or reduce the extent to which work product is discoverable under existing law in any action.
2018 .050. Notwithstanding Section 2018 .040, when a lawyer is suspected of knowingly participating in a crime or fraud, there is no protection of work product under this chapter in any official investigation by a law enforcement agency or proceeding or action brought by a public prosecutor in the name of the people of the State of California if the services of the lawyer were sought or obtained to enable or aid anyone to commit or plan to commit a crime or fraud.
2018 .060. Nothing in this chapter is intended to limit an attorney' s ability to request an in camera hearing as provided for in People v. Superior Court (Laff) (2001) 25 Cal.4th 703
2018 .070. (a) The State Bar may discover the work product of an attorney against whom disciplinary charges are pending when it is relevant to issues of breach of duty by the lawyer and requisite client approval has been granted.
(b) Where requested and for good cause, discovery under this section shall be subject to a protective order to ensure the confidentiality of the work product except for its use by the State Bar in disciplinary investigations and its consideration under seal in State Bar Court proceedings.
(c) For purposes of this chapter, whenever a client has initiated a complaint against an attorney, the requisite client approval shall be deemed to have been granted.                                                                                               top of page
2018 .080. In an action between an attorney and a client or a former client of the attorney, no work product privilege under this chapter exists if the work product is relevant to an issue of breach by the attorney of a duty to the client arising out of the attorney-client relationship.

 PROTECTIVE ORDERS, SEQUENCE, TIMING
C.C.P. §2019

2019 .010. Any party may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods:
(a) Oral and written depositions.
(b) Interrogatories to a party.
(c) Inspections of documents, things, and places.
(d) Physical and mental examinations.
(e) Requests for admissions.
(f) Simultaneous exchanges of expert trial witness information.

2019 .020. (a) Except as otherwise provided by a rule of the Judicial Council, a local court rule, or a local uniform written policy, the methods of discovery may be used in any sequence, and the fact that a party is conducting discovery, whether by deposition or another method, shall not operate to delay the discovery of any other party.
(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), on motion and for good cause shown, the court may establish the sequence and timing of discovery for the convenience of parties and witnesses and in the interests of justice.                                  top of page

2019 .030. (a) The court shall restrict the frequency or extent of use of a discovery method provided in Section 2019 .010 if it determines either of the following: (1) The discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or duplicative, or is obtainable from some other source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive. (2) The selected method of discovery is unduly burdensome or expensive, taking into account the needs of the case, the amount in controversy, and the importance of the issues at stake in the litigation.
(b) The court may make these determinations pursuant to a motion for a protective order by a party or other affected person. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.
(c) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion for a protective order, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

2019.040.

 (a) When any method of discovery permits the production, inspection,
copying, testing, or sampling of documents or
tangible things, that method shall also permit the production, inspection, copying, testing, or sampling of electronically stored information. (b) All procedures available under this title to compel, prevent, or limit the production, inspection, copying, testing, or sampling of documents or tangible things shall be available to compel, prevent, or limit the production, inspection, copying, testing, or sampling of electronically stored information.

 TRADE SECRET
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2019 .210. In any action alleging the misappropriation of a trade secret under the Uniform Trade Secrets Act (Title 5 (commencing with Section 3426) of Part 1 of Division 4 of the Civil Code), before commencing discovery relating to the trade secret, the party alleging the misappropriation shall identify the trade secret with reasonable particularity subject to any orders that may be appropriate under Section 3426.5 of the Civil Code.

 NON-PARTY DEPOSITION DISCOVERY
C.C.P.§2020
SEE ALSO § 2019.030. Protective Order by non-party to limit

§ 2020.010. 3 types: oral, written, business records. Subpoena required
§ 2020.020. 3 subpoena types:
only testify, 2020.310
only copy business records, 2020.410
testify & produce [not limited to business records], 2020.510
§ 2020.030. Application of CCP§1985 & Ev.C.§1560
Article 2.Subpoenas
§ 2020.210. Issuance of subpoena by clerk or attorney of record
§ 2020.220. Service: reasonable time for witness; personal
§ 2020.230. Witness fee
§ 2020.240. Sanctions: contempt, forfeiture & damages
§ 2020.310. Subpoena content, only attendance and testimony
§ 2020.410. Subpoena content, only production of business records
§ 2020.420. Depo Officer, only production of business records
§ 2020.430. Production of business records to Depo Officer
Subsec. (e) production to attorney per Ev.C.§1560
See also Consumer Records protections C.C.P.§1985.3
§ 2020.440. Duties of depo officer; copies to parties requesting
§ 2020.510. Subpoena content, testimony & production of documents
2020.010. (a) Any of the following methods may be used to obtain discovery within the state from a person who is not a party to the action in which the discovery is sought:
(1) An oral deposition under Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 2025.010).
(2) A written deposition under Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 2028.010).
(3) A deposition for production of business records and things under Article 4 (commencing with Section 2020 .410) or Article 5 (commencing with Section 2020 .510).
(b) Except as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 2025.280, the process by which a nonparty is required to provide discovery is a deposition subpoena.
DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

2020.020.  A deposition subpoena may command any of the following:

   (a) Only the attendance and the testimony of the deponent, under
      Article 3 (commencing with Section 2020.310).
   (b) Only the production of business records for copying, under
      Article 4 (commencing with Section 2020.410).
   (c) The attendance and the testimony of the deponent, as well as
    the production of business records, other documents, electronically
    stored information, and tangible things, under Article 5 (commencing
    with Section 2020.510).

 2020 .030. Except as modified in this chapter, the provisions of Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 1985) of Title 3 of Part 4 of this code, and of Article 4 (commencing with Section 1560) of Chapter 2 of Division 11 of the Evidence Code, apply to a deposition subpoena.

 2020 .210. (a) The clerk of the court in which the action is pending shall issue a deposition subpoena signed and sealed, but otherwise in blank, to a party requesting it, who shall fill it in before service.
(b) Instead of a court-issued deposition subpoena, an attorney of record for any party may sign and issue a deposition subpoena. A deposition subpoena issued under this subdivision need not be sealed. A copy may be served on the nonparty, and the attorney may retain the original.

Non-party Depo table

 

2020.220. (a) Subject to subdivision (c) of Section 2020.410,

service of a deposition subpoena shall be effected a sufficient time
in advance of the deposition to provide the deponent a reasonable
opportunity to locate and produce any designated business records,
documents, electronically stored information, and tangible things, as
described in Article 4 (commencing with Section 2020.410), and,
where personal attendance is commanded, a reasonable time to travel
to the place of deposition.
   (b) Any person may serve the subpoena by personal delivery of a
copy of it as follows:
   (1) If the deponent is a natural person, to that person.
   (2) If the deponent is an organization, to any officer, director,
custodian of records, or to any agent or employee authorized by the
organization to accept service of a subpoena.
   (c) Personal service of any deposition subpoena is effective to
require all of the following of any deponent who is a resident of
California at the time of service:
   (1) Personal attendance and testimony, if the subpoena so
specifies.
   (2) Any specified production, inspection, testing, and sampling.
   (3) The deponent's attendance at a court session to consider any
issue arising out of the deponent's refusal to be sworn, or to answer
any question, or to produce specified items, or to permit inspection
or photocopying, if the subpoena so specifies, or specified testing
and sampling of the items produced.
   (d) Unless the subpoenaing party and the subpoenaed person
otherwise agree or the court otherwise orders, the following shall
apply:
   (1) If a subpoena requiring production of electronically stored
information does not specify a form or forms for producing a type of
electronically stored information, the person subpoenaed shall
produce the information in the form or forms in which it is
ordinarily maintained or in a form that is reasonably usable.
   (2) A subpoenaed person need not produce the same electronically
stored information in more than one form.
   (e) The subpoenaed person opposing the production, inspection,
copying, testing, or sampling of electronically stored information on
the basis that the information is from a source that is not
reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense shall bear
the burden of demonstrating that the information is from a source
that is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense.

   (f) If the person from whom discovery of electronically stored
information is subpoenaed establishes that the information is from a
source that is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or
expense, the court may nonetheless order discovery if the subpoenaing
party shows good cause, subject to any limitations imposed under
subdivision (i).
   (g) If the court finds good cause for the production of
electronically stored information from a source that is not
reasonably accessible, the court may set conditions for the discovery
of the electronically stored information, including allocation of
the expense of discovery.
   (h) If necessary, the subpoenaed person, at the reasonable expense
of the subpoenaing party, shall, through detection devices,
translate any data compilations included in the subpoena into a
reasonably usable form.
   (i) The court shall limit the frequency or extent of discovery of
electronically stored information, even from a source that is
reasonably accessible, if the court determines that any of the
following conditions exists:
   (1) It is possible to obtain the information from some other
source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive.
   (2) The discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or
duplicative.
   (3) The party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by
discovery in the action to obtain the information sought.
   (4) The likely burden or expense of the proposed discovery
outweighs the likely benefit, taking into account the amount in
controversy, the resources of the parties, the importance of the
issues in the litigation, and the importance of the requested
discovery in resolving the issues.
   (j) If a subpoenaed person notifies the subpoenaing party that
electronically stored information produced pursuant to a subpoena is
subject to a claim of privilege or of protection as attorney work
product, as described in Section 2031.285, the provisions of Section
2031.285 shall apply.
   (k) A party serving a subpoena requiring the production of
electronically stored information shall take reasonable steps to
avoid imposing undue burden or expense on a person subject to the
subpoena.
   (l) An order of the court requiring compliance with a subpoena
issued under this section shall protect a person who is neither a
party nor a party's officer from undue burden or expense resulting
from compliance.
   (m) (1) Absent exceptional circumstances, the court shall not
impose sanctions on a subpoenaed person or any attorney of a
subpoenaed person for failure to provide electronically stored
information that has been lost, damaged, altered, or overwritten as
the result of the routine, good faith operation of an electronic
information system.
   (2) The subdivision shall not be construed to alter any obligation
to preserve discoverable information.

 2020 .230. (a) If a deposition subpoena requires the personal attendance of the deponent, under Article 3 (commencing with Section 2020 .310) or Article 5 (commencing with Section 2020 .510), the party noticing the deposition shall pay to the deponent in cash or by check the same witness fee and mileage required by Chapter 1 (commencing with Section 68070) of Title 8 of the Government Code for attendance and testimony before the court in which the action is pending. This payment, whether or not demanded by the deponent, shall be made, at the option of the party noticing the deposition, either at the time of service of the deposition subpoena, or at the time the deponent attends for the taking of testimony.
(b) Service of a deposition subpoena that does not require the personal attendance of a custodian of records or other qualified person, under Article 4 (commencing with Section 2020 .410), shall be accompanied, whether or not demanded by the deponent, by a payment in cash or by check of the witness fee required by paragraph (6) of subdivision (b) of Section 1563 of the Evidence Code.

Non-party Depo table

 2020 .240. A deponent who disobeys a deposition subpoena in any manner described in subdivision (c) of Section 2020 .220 may be punished for contempt under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) without the necessity of a prior order of court directing compliance by the witness. The deponent is also subject to the forfeiture and the payment of damages set forth in Section 1992.

 2020 .310. The following rules apply to a deposition subpoena that commands only the attendance and the testimony of the deponent:
(a) The subpoena shall specify the time when and the place where the deponent is commanded to attend the deposition.
(b) The subpoena shall set forth a summary of all of the following: (1) The nature of a deposition. (2) The rights and duties of the deponent. (3) The penalties for disobedience of a deposition subpoena, as described in Section 2020 .240.
(c) If the deposition will be recorded using audio or video technology by, or at the direction of, the noticing party under Section 2025.340, the subpoena shall state that it will be recorded in that manner.
(d) If the deposition testimony will be conducted using instant visual display, the subpoena shall state that it will be conducted in that manner.
(e) If the deponent is an organization, the subpoena shall describe with reasonable particularity the matters on which examination is requested. The subpoena shall also advise the organization of its duty to make the designation of employees or agents who will attend the deposition, as described in Section 2025.230.

 

2020.410. (a) A deposition subpoena that commands only the

production of business records for copying shall designate the
business records to be produced either by specifically describing
each individual item or by reasonably particularizing each category
of item, and shall specify the form in which any electronically
stored information is to be produced, if a particular form is
desired.
   (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), specific information
identifiable only to the deponent's records system, like a policy
number or the date when a consumer interacted with the witness, is
not required.
   (c) A deposition subpoena that commands only the production of
business records for copying need not be accompanied by an affidavit
or declaration showing good cause for the production of the business
records designated in it. It shall be directed to the custodian of
those records or another person qualified to certify the records. It
shall command compliance in accordance with Section 2020.430 on a
date that is no earlier than 20 days after the issuance, or 15 days
after the service, of the deposition subpoena, whichever date is
later.
   (d) If, under Section 1985.3 or 1985.6, the one to whom the
deposition subpoena is directed is a witness, and the business
records described in the deposition subpoena are personal records
pertaining to a consumer, the service of the deposition subpoena
shall be accompanied either by a copy of the proof of service of the
notice to the consumer described in subdivision (e) of Section
1985.3, or subdivision (b) of Section 1985.6, as applicable, or by
the consumer's written authorization to release personal records
described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 1985.3, or
paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 1985.6, as applicable.
                                 top of page          Non-party Depo table

 2020 .420. The officer for a deposition seeking discovery only of business records for copying under this article shall be a professional photocopier registered under Chapter 20 (commencing with Section 22450) of Division 8 of the Business and Professions Code, or a person exempted from the registration requirements of that chapter under Section 22451 of the Business and Professions Code. This deposition officer shall not be financially interested in the action, or a relative or employee of any attorney of the parties. Any objection to the qualifications of the deposition officer is waived unless made before the date of production or as soon thereafter as the ground for that objection becomes known or could be discovered by reasonable diligence.

 2020 .430. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (e), if a deposition subpoena commands only the production of business records for copying, the custodian of the records or other qualified person shall, in person, by messenger, or by mail, deliver both of the following only to the deposition officer specified in the subpoena: (1) A true, legible, and durable copy of the records. (2) An affidavit in compliance with Section 1561 of the Evidence Code.

(b) If the delivery required by subdivision (a) is made to the office of the deposition officer, the records shall be enclosed, sealed, and directed as described in subdivision (c) of Section 1560 of the Evidence Code.

(c) If the delivery required by subdivision (a) is made at the office of the business whose records are the subject of the deposition subpoena, the custodian of those records or other qualified person shall do one of the following: (1) Permit the deposition officer specified in the deposition subpoena to make a copy of the originals of the designated business records during normal business hours, as defined in subdivision (e) of Section 1560 of the Evidence Code. (2) Deliver to the deposition officer a true, legible, and durable copy of the records on receipt of payment in cash or by check, by or on behalf of the party serving the deposition subpoena, of the reasonable costs of preparing that copy, together with an itemized statement of the cost of preparation, as determined under subdivision (b) of Section 1563 of the Evidence Code. This copy need not be delivered in a sealed envelope.

(d) Unless the parties, and if the records are those of a consumer as defined in Section 1985.3 or 1985.6, the consumer, stipulate to an earlier date, the custodian of the records shall not deliver to the deposition officer the records that are the subject of the deposition subpoena prior to the date and time specified in the deposition subpoena. The following legend shall appear in boldface type on the deposition subpoena immediately following the date and time specified for production: "Do not release the requested records to the deposition officer prior to the date and time stated above."

(e) This section does not apply if the subpoena directs the deponent to make the records available for inspection or copying by the subpoenaing party's attorney or a representative of that attorney at the witness' business address under subdivision (e) of Section 1560 of the Evidence Code.

(f) The provisions of Section 1562 of the Evidence Code concerning the admissibility of the affidavit of the custodian or other qualified person apply to a deposition subpoena served under this article.                                               Non-party Depo table

 2020 .440. Promptly on or after the deposition date and after the receipt or the making of a copy of business records under this article, the deposition officer shall provide that copy to the party at whose instance the deposition subpoena was served, and a copy of those records to any other party to the action who then or subsequently, within a period of six months following the settlement of the case, notifies the deposition officer that the party desires to purchase a copy of those records.                                                   top of page

 ATTENDANCE & PRODUCTION

2020.510. (a) A deposition subpoena that commands the attendance

and the testimony of the deponent, as well as the production of
business records, documents, electronically stored information, and
tangible things, shall:
   (1) Comply with the requirements of Section 2020.310.
   (2) Designate the business records, documents, electronically
stored information, and tangible things to be produced either by
specifically describing each individual item or by reasonably
particularizing each category of item.
   (3) Specify any testing or sampling that is being sought.
   (4) Specify the form in which any electronically stored
information is to be produced, if a particular form is desired.
   (b) A deposition subpoena under subdivision (a) need not be
accompanied by an affidavit or declaration showing good cause for the
production of the documents and things designated.
   (c) If, as described in Section 1985.3, the person to whom the
deposition subpoena is directed is a witness, and the business
records described in the deposition subpoena are personal records
pertaining to a consumer, the service of the deposition subpoena
shall be accompanied either by a copy of the proof of service of the
notice to the consumer described in subdivision (e) of Section
1985.3, or by the consumer's written authorization to release
personal records described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of
Section 1985.3.
   (d) If, as described in Section 1985.6, the person to whom the
deposition subpoena is directed is a witness and the business records
described in the deposition subpoena are employment records
pertaining to an employee, the service of the deposition subpoena
shall be accompanied either by a copy of the proof of service of the
notice to the employee described in subdivision (e) of Section
1985.6, or by the employee's written authorization to release
personal records described in paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of
Section 1985.6.
                  Non-party Depo table

 SANCTIONS C.C.P. §2023
SEE ALSO sanctions provisions in
each discovery device & §§2017, 2019
§ 2023.010. Misuses of discovery process include
§ 2023.020. Sanctions for failure to confer as required
§ 2023.030. Other sanctions for misuse of discovery
§ 2023.040. Content of Notice, Declaration, & Memorandum

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2023 .010. Misuses of the discovery process include, but are not limited to, the following:
(a) Persisting, over objection and without substantial justification, in an attempt to obtain information or materials that are outside the scope of permissible discovery.
(b) Using a discovery method in a manner that does not comply with its specified procedures.
(c) Employing a discovery method in a manner or to an extent that causes unwarranted annoyance, embarrassment, or oppression, or undue burden and expense.
(d) Failing to respond or to submit to an authorized method of discovery.
(e) Making, without substantial justification, an unmeritorious objection to discovery.
(f) Making an evasive response to discovery.
(g) Disobeying a court order to provide discovery.
(h) Making or opposing, unsuccessfully and without substantial justification, a motion to compel or to limit discovery.
(i) Failing to confer in person, by telephone, or by letter with an opposing party or attorney in a reasonable and good faith attempt to resolve informally any dispute concerning discovery, if the section governing a particular discovery motion requires the filing of a declaration stating facts showing that an attempt at informal resolution has been made.

2023 .020. Notwithstanding the outcome of the particular discovery motion, the court shall impose a monetary sanction ordering that any party or attorney who fails to confer as required pay the reasonable expenses, including attorney's fees, incurred by anyone as a result of that conduct.

2023.030. To the extent authorized by the chapter governing any

particular discovery method or any other provision of this title, the
court, after notice to any affected party, person, or attorney, and
after opportunity for hearing, may impose the following sanctions
against anyone engaging in conduct that is a misuse of the discovery
process:
   (a) The court may impose a monetary sanction ordering that one
engaging in the misuse of the discovery process, or any attorney
advising that conduct, or both pay the reasonable expenses, including
attorney's fees, incurred by anyone as a result of that conduct. The
court may also impose this sanction on one unsuccessfully asserting
that another has engaged in the misuse of the discovery process, or
on any attorney who advised that assertion, or on both. If a monetary
sanction is authorized by any provision of this title, the court
shall impose that sanction unless it finds that the one subject to
the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other
circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.
   (b) The court may impose an issue sanction ordering that
designated facts shall be taken as established in the action in
accordance with the claim of the party adversely affected by the
misuse of the discovery process. The court may also impose an issue
sanction by an order prohibiting any party engaging in the misuse of
the discovery process from supporting or opposing designated claims
or defenses.
   (c) The court may impose an evidence sanction by an order
prohibiting any party engaging in the misuse of the discovery process
from introducing designated matters in evidence.
   (d) The court may impose a terminating sanction by one of the
following orders:
   (1) An order striking out the pleadings or parts of the pleadings
of any party engaging in the misuse of the discovery process.
   (2) An order staying further proceedings by that party until an
order for discovery is obeyed.
   (3) An order dismissing the action, or any part of the action, of
that party.
   (4) An order rendering a judgment by default against that party.
   (e) The court may impose a contempt sanction by an order treating
the misuse of the discovery process as a contempt of court.
   (f) (1) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), or any other section of
this title, absent exceptional circumstances, the court shall not
impose sanctions on a party or any attorney of a party for failure to
provide electronically stored information that has been lost,
damaged, altered, or overwritten as the result of the routine, good
faith operation of an electronic information system.
   (2) This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any
obligation to preserve discoverable information.

 2023 .040. A request for a sanction shall, in the notice of motion, identify every person, party, and attorney against whom the sanction is sought, and specify the type of sanction sought. The notice of motion shall be supported by a memorandum of points and authorities, and accompanied by a declaration setting forth facts supporting the amount of any monetary sanction sought.

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DISCOVERY CUTOFF

§ 2024.010. Discovery "completed" on due date or day depo begins
§ 2024.020. Discovery cutoff
§ 2024.030. Discovery cutoff for expert witness
§ 2024.040. Exceptions to discovery cutoff
§ 2024.050. Motion to extend or reopen discovery
§ 2024.060. Agreement extending discovery cutoff: writing & specific date

 
2024 .010. As used in this chapter, discovery is considered completed on the day a response is due or on the day a deposition begins.

 
2024 .020. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, any party shall be entitled as a matter of right to complete discovery proceedings on or before the 30th day, and to have motions concerning discovery heard on or before the 15th day, before the date initially set for the trial of the action.
(b) Except as provided in Section 2024 .050, a continuance or postponement of the trial date does not operate to reopen discovery proceedings.

 2024 .030. Any party shall be entitled as a matter of right to complete discovery proceedings pertaining to a witness identified under Chapter 18 (commencing with Section 2034.010) on or before the 15th day, and to have motions concerning that discovery heard on or before the 10th day, before the date initially set for the trial of the action.

 2024 .040. (a) The time limit on completing discovery in an action to be arbitrated under Chapter 2.5 (commencing with Section 1141.10) of Title 3 of Part 3 is subject to Judicial Council Rule. After an award in a case ordered to judicial arbitration, completion of discovery is limited by Section 1141.24.
(b) This chapter does not apply to either of the following: (1) Summary proceedings for obtaining possession of real property governed by Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 1159) of Title 3 of Part 3. Except as provided in Sections 2024 .050 and 2025.060, discovery in these proceedings shall be completed on or before the fifth day before the date set for trial. (2) Eminent domain proceedings governed by Title 7 (commencing with Section 1230.010) of Part 3.

 2024 .050. (a) On motion of any party, the court may grant leave to complete discovery proceedings, or to have a motion concerning discovery heard, closer to the initial trial date, or to reopen discovery after a new trial date has been set. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.
(b) In exercising its discretion to grant or deny this motion, the court shall take into consideration any matter relevant to the leave requested, including, but not limited to, the following: (1) The necessity and the reasons for the discovery. (2) The diligence or lack of diligence of the party seeking the discovery or the hearing of a discovery motion, and the reasons that the discovery was not completed or that the discovery motion was not heard earlier. (3) Any likelihood that permitting the discovery or hearing the discovery motion will prevent the case from going to trial on the date set, or otherwise interfere with the trial calendar, or result in prejudice to any other party. (4) The length of time that has elapsed between any date previously set, and the date presently set, for the trial of the action.
(c) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to extend or to reopen discovery, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

 2024 .060. Parties to an action may, with the consent of any party affected by it, enter into an agreement to extend the time for the completion of discovery proceedings or for the hearing of motions concerning discovery, or to reopen discovery after a new date for trial of the action has been set. This agreement may be informal, but it shall be confirmed in a writing that specifies the extended date. In no event shall this agreement require a court to grant a continuance or postponement of the trial of the action.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

DEPOSITIONS
Non-party deposition
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2025.010 Who may take & be deposed

.410 Waiver of error in Notice; Objection; Remedy; Stay

2025.210 Timing [disc.completion §2024.010]

.420 Protective Orders

.220 Notice of depo. content: video & use at trial, ESI form, [see .330 re video & video notice]

.430 Sanctions; noticing party fails to proceed

.230 PMQ or Corporate depositions

.440 Sanctions: party fails to subpoena witness

.240 Notice service. Consumer records notice

.450 Sanctions: Party fails to appear or proceed

.250 Place & distance limitations

.460 Objections at Depo: waiver if not made; objections not waived even if not made

.260 Compelling more distant deposition

.470 Suspension of Depo. Only for protective order or by stipulation of all parties

.270 Timing: days after service of notice

.480 Motion to Compel Production or Answers & Sanctions

.280 Document & ESI production

.510 Transcription; Fees; copies of recordings

.290 7 hour limit & exceptions [PMQ, expert, employment law, dying witness]

.520 deponent correction & changes of transcript of each session; Motion to suppress deposition

.310 Telephonic depositions

.520 deponent authentication of recording

.320 Deposition officers; services

.540 certification of transcript by reporter

.330 Conduct of depo.; video depo

.550 Attorney custodian of depo

.340 Audio & video recording procedures

.560 operator custodian of recording


.570 Other persons obtaining copies of transcript


.610 Limit of one deposition for natural person


.620 Use at Trial


2025 .010. Any party may obtain discovery within the scope delimited by Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 2017.010) and Chapter 3 (commencing with Section 2017.710), and subject to the restrictions set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 2019.010), by taking in California the oral deposition of any person, including any party to the action. The person deposed may be a natural person, an organization such as a public or private corporation, a partnership, an association, or a governmental agency.

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2025 .210. Subject to Sections 2025 .270 and 2025 .610, an oral deposition may be taken as follows: (a) The defendant may serve a deposition notice without leave of court at any time after that defendant has been served or has appeared in the action, whichever occurs first.
(b) The plaintiff may serve a deposition notice without leave of court on any date that is 20 days after the service of the summons on, or appearance by, any defendant. On motion with or without notice, the court, for good cause shown, may grant to a plaintiff leave to serve a deposition notice on an earlier date.

2025.220. (a) A party desiring to take the oral deposition of any

person shall give notice in writing. The deposition notice shall
state all of the following:
   (1) The address where the deposition will be taken.
   (2) The date of the deposition, selected under Section 2025.270,
and the time it will commence.
   (3) The name of each deponent, and the address and telephone
number, if known, of any deponent who is not a party to the action.
If the name of the deponent is not known, the deposition notice shall
set forth instead a general description sufficient to identify the
person or particular class to which the person belongs.
   (4) The specification with reasonable particularity of any
materials or category of materials, including any electronically
stored information, to be produced by the deponent.
   (5) Any intention by the party noticing the deposition to record
the testimony by audio or video technology, in addition to recording
the testimony by the stenographic method as required by Section
2025.330 and any intention to record the testimony by stenographic
method through the instant visual display of the testimony. If the
deposition will be conducted using instant visual display, a copy of
the deposition notice shall also be given to the deposition officer.
Any offer to provide the instant visual display of the testimony or
to provide rough draft transcripts to any party which is accepted
prior to, or offered at, the deposition shall also be made by the
deposition officer at the deposition to all parties in attendance.
Any party or attorney requesting the provision of the instant visual
display of the testimony, or rough draft transcripts, shall pay the
reasonable cost of those services, which may be no greater than the
costs charged to any other party or attorney.
   (6) Any intention to reserve the right to use at trial a video
recording of the deposition testimony of a treating or consulting
physician or of any expert witness under subdivision (d) of Section
2025.620. In this event, the operator of the video camera shall be a
person who is authorized to administer an oath, and shall not be
financially interested in the action or be a relative or employee of
any attorney of any of the parties.
   (7) The form in which any electronically stored information is to
be produced, if a particular form is desired.
   (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), where under Article 4
(commencing with Section 2020.410) only the production by a nonparty
of business records for copying is desired, a copy of the deposition
subpoena shall serve as the notice of deposition.

2025 .230. If the deponent named is not a natural person, the deposition notice shall describe with reasonable particularity the matters on which examination is requested. In that event, the deponent shall designate and produce at the deposition those of its officers, directors, managing agents, employees, or agents who are most qualified to testify on its behalf as to those matters to the extent of any information known or reasonably available to the deponent.

2025 .240. (a) The party who prepares a notice of deposition shall give the notice to every other party who has appeared in the action. The deposition notice, or the accompanying proof of service, shall list all the parties or attorneys for parties on whom it is served.

(b) Where, as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 1985.3, the party giving notice of the deposition is a subpoenaing party, and the deponent is a witness commanded by a deposition subpoena to produce personal records of a consumer, the subpoenaing party shall serve on that consumer all of the following:
(1) A notice of the deposition.
(2) The notice of privacy rights specified in subdivision (e) of Section 1985.3 and in Section 1985.6. (3) A copy of the deposition subpoena.

(c) If the attendance of the deponent is to be compelled by service of a deposition subpoena under Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 2020.010), an identical copy of that subpoena shall be served with the deposition notice.

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2025 .250. (a) Unless the court orders otherwise under Section 2025 .260, the deposition of a natural person, whether or not a party to the action, shall be taken at a place that is, at the option of the party giving notice of the deposition, either within 75 miles of the deponent's residence, or within the county where the action is pending and within 150 miles of the deponent's residence.

(b) The deposition of an organization that is a party to the action shall be taken at a place that is, at the option of the party giving notice of the deposition, either within 75 miles of the organization's principal executive or business office in California, or within the county where the action is pending and within 150 miles of that office.

(c) Unless the organization consents to a more distant place, the deposition of any other organization shall be taken within 75 miles of the organization's principal executive or business office in California. If the organization has not designated a principal executive or business office in California, the deposition shall be taken at a place that is, at the option of the party giving notice of the deposition, either within the county where the action is pending, or within 75 miles of any executive or business office in California of the organization.

(d)  If an organization has not designated a principal executive or business office in California, the deposition
 shall be taken at a place that is, at the option of the party giving notice of the deposition, either within
 the county where the action is pending, or within 75 miles of any executive or business office in California of the
 organization.

 2025 .260. (a) A party desiring to take the deposition of a natural person who is a party to the action or an officer, director, managing agent, or employee of a party may make a motion for an order that the deponent attend for deposition at a place that is more distant than that permitted under Section 2025 .250. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(b) In exercising its discretion to grant or deny this motion, the court shall take into consideration any factor tending to show whether the interests of justice will be served by requiring the deponent's attendance at that more distant place, including, but not limited to, the following:
(1) Whether the moving party selected the forum.
(2) Whether the deponent will be present to testify at the trial of the action.
(3) The convenience of the deponent.
(4) The feasibility of conducting the deposition by written questions under Chapter 11 (commencing with Section 2028.010), or of using a discovery method other than a deposition.
(5) The number of depositions sought to be taken at a place more distant than that permitted under Section 2025 .250.
(6) The expense to the parties of requiring the deposition to be taken within the distance permitted under Section 2025 .250.
(7) The whereabouts of the deponent at the time for which the deposition is scheduled.

(c) The order may be conditioned on the advancement by the moving party of the reasonable expenses and costs to the deponent for travel to the place of deposition.

(d) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to increase the travel limits for a party deponent, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

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 2025 .270. (a) An oral deposition shall be scheduled for a date at least 10 days after service of the deposition notice. If, as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 1985.3, the party giving notice of the deposition is a subpoenaing party, and the deponent is a witness commanded by a deposition subpoena to produce personal records of a consumer, the deposition shall be scheduled for a date at least 20 days after issuance of that subpoena.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), in an unlawful detainer action an oral deposition shall be scheduled for a date at least five days after service of the deposition notice, but not later than five days before trial.

(c) On motion or ex parte application of any party or deponent, for good cause shown, the court may shorten or extend the time for scheduling a deposition, or may stay its taking until the determination of a motion for a protective order under Section 2025 .420.

2025.280.  (a) The service of a deposition notice under Section
2025.240 is effective to require any deponent who is a party to the
action or an officer, director, managing agent, or employee of a
party to attend and to testify, as well as to produce any document,
electronically stored information, or tangible thing for inspectionand copying.
   (b) The attendance and testimony of any other deponent, as well as
the production by the deponent of any document, electronically
stored information, or tangible thing for inspection and copying,
requires the service on the deponent of a deposition subpoena under
Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 2020.010).
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2025.290.  (a) Except as provided in subdivision (b), or by any
court order, including a case management order, a deposition
examination of the witness by all counsel, other than the witness'
counsel of record, shall be limited to seven hours of total
testimony. The court shall allow additional time, beyond any limits
imposed by this section, if needed to fairly examine the deponent or
if the deponent, another person, or any other circumstance impedes or
delays the examination.
   (b) This section shall not apply under any of the following
circumstances:
   (1) If the parties have stipulated that this section will not
apply to a specific deposition or to the entire proceeding.
   (2) To any deposition of a witness designated as an expert
pursuant to Sections 2034.210 to 2034.310, inclusive.
   (3) To any case designated as complex by the court pursuant to
Rule 3.400 of the California Rules of Court, unless a licensed
physician attests in a declaration served on the parties that the
deponent suffers from an illness or condition that raises substantial
medical doubt of survival of the deponent beyond six months, in
which case the deposition examination of the witness by all counsel,
other than the witness' counsel of record, shall be limited to two
days of no more than seven hours of total testimony each day, or 14
hours of total testimony.
   (4) To any case brought by an employee or applicant for employment
against an employer for acts or omissions arising out of or relating
to the employment relationship.
   (5) To any deposition of a person who is designated as the most
qualified person to be deposed under Section 2025.230.
   (6) To any party who appeared in the action after the deposition
has concluded, in which case the new party may notice another
deposition subject to the requirements of this section.
   (c) It is the intent of the Legislature that any exclusions made
by this section shall not be construed to create any presumption or
any substantive change to existing law relating to the appropriate
time limit for depositions falling within the exclusion. Nothing in
this section shall be construed to affect the existing right of any
party to move for a protective order or the court's discretion to
make any order that justice requires to limit a deposition in order
to protect any party, deponent, or other natural person or
organization from unwarranted annoyance, embarrassment, oppression,
undue burden, or expense.


 2025 .310. (a) A person may take, and any person other than the deponent may attend, a deposition by telephone or other remote electronic means.

(b) The court may expressly provide that a nonparty deponent may appear at the deposition by telephone if it finds there is good cause and no prejudice to any party. A party deponent shall appear at the deposition in person and be in the presence of the deposition officer.

(c) The procedures to implement this section shall be established by court order in the specific action or proceeding or by the California Rules of Court.

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2025.320.  Except as provided in Section 2020.420, the deposition
shall be conducted under the supervision of an officer who is
authorized to administer an oath and is subject to all of the
following requirements:
   (a) The officer shall not be financially interested in the action
and shall not be a relative or employee of any attorney of the
parties, or of any of the parties.
   (b) Services and products offered or provided by the deposition
officer or the entity providing the services of the deposition
officer to any party or to any party's attorney or third party who is
financing all or part of the action shall be offered to all parties
or their attorneys attending the deposition. No service or product
may be offered or provided by the deposition officer or by the entity
providing the services of the deposition officer to any party or any
party's attorney or third party who is financing all or part of the
action unless the service or product is offered or provided to all
parties or their attorneys attending the deposition. All services and
products offered or provided shall be made available at the same
time to all parties or their attorneys.
   (c) The deposition officer or the entity providing the services of
the deposition officer shall not provide to any party or any party's
attorney or third party who is financing all or part of the action
any service or product consisting of the deposition officer's
notations or comments regarding the demeanor of any witness,
attorney, or party present at the deposition. The deposition officer
or entity providing the services of the deposition officer shall not
collect any personal identifying information about the witness as a
service or product to be provided to any party or third party who is
financing all or part of the action.
   (d) Upon the request of any party or any party's attorney
attending a deposition, any party or any party's attorney attending
the deposition shall enter in the record of the deposition all
services and products made available to that party or party's
attorney or third party who is financing all or part of the action by
the deposition officer or by the entity providing the services of
the deposition officer. A party in the action who is not represented
by an attorney shall be informed by the noticing party or the party's
attorney that the unrepresented party may request this statement.
   (e) Any objection to the qualifications of the deposition officer
is waived unless made before the deposition begins or as soon
thereafter as the ground for that objection becomes known or could be
discovered by reasonable diligence.
   (f) Violation of this section by any person may result in a civil
penalty of up to five thousand dollars ($5,000) imposed by a court of
competent jurisdiction.
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2025.330.  (a) The deposition officer shall put the deponent under
oath or affirmation.
   (b) Unless the parties agree or the court orders otherwise, the
testimony, as well as any stated objections, shall be taken
stenographically. If taken stenographically, it shall be by a person
certified pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with Section 8020) of
Chapter 13 of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code.
   (c) The party noticing the deposition may also record the
testimony by audio or video technology if the notice of deposition
stated an intention also to record the testimony by either of those
methods, or if all the parties agree that the testimony may also be
recorded by either of those methods. Any other party, at that party's
expense, may make an audio or video record of the deposition,
provided that the other party promptly, and in no event less than
three calendar days before the date for which the deposition is
scheduled, serves a written notice of this intention to make an audio
or video record of the deposition testimony on the party or attorney
who noticed the deposition, on all other parties or attorneys on
whom the deposition notice was served under Section 2025.240, and on
any deponent whose attendance is being compelled by a deposition
subpoena under Chapter 6 (commencing with Section 2020.010). If this
notice is given three calendar days before the deposition date, it
shall be made by personal service under Section 1011.
   (d) Examination and cross-examination of the deponent shall
proceed as permitted at trial under the provisions of the Evidence
Code.
   (e) In lieu of participating in the oral examination, parties may
transmit written questions in a sealed envelope to the party taking
the deposition for delivery to the deposition officer, who shall
unseal the envelope and propound them to the deponent after the oral
examination has been completed.

 

2025 .340. If a deposition is being recorded by means of audio or video technology by, or at the direction of, any party, the following procedure shall be observed:

(a) The area used for recording the deponent's oral testimony shall be suitably large, adequately lighted, and reasonably quiet.

(b) The operator of the recording equipment shall be competent to set up, operate, and monitor the equipment in the manner prescribed in this section. Except as provided in subdivision (c), the operator may be an employee of the attorney taking the deposition unless the operator is also the deposition officer.

(c) If a video recording of deposition testimony is to be used under subdivision (d) of Section 2025 .620, the operator of the recording equipment shall be a person who is authorized to administer an oath, and shall not be financially interested in the action or be a relative or employee of any attorney of any of the parties, unless all parties attending the deposition agree on the record to waive these qualifications and restrictions.

(d) Services and products offered or provided by the deposition officer or the entity providing the services of the deposition officer to any party or to any party's attorney or third party who is financing all or part of the action shall be offered or provided to all parties or their attorneys attending the deposition. No service or product may be offered or provided by the deposition officer or by the entity providing the services of the deposition officer to any party or any party's attorney or third party who is financing all or part of the action unless the service or product is offered or provided to all parties or their attorneys attending the deposition. All services and products offered or provided shall be made available at the same time to all parties or their attorneys.

(e) The deposition officer or the entity providing the services of the deposition officer shall not provide to any party or any other person or entity any service or product consisting of the deposition officer's notations or comments regarding the demeanor of any witness, attorney, or party present at the deposition. The deposition officer or the entity providing the services of the deposition officer shall not collect any personal identifying information about the witness as a service or product to be provided to any party or third party who is financing all or part of the action.

(f) Upon the request of any party or any party's attorney attending a deposition, any party or any party's attorney attending the deposition shall enter in the record of the deposition all services and products made available to that party or party's attorney or third party who is financing all or part of the action by the deposition officer or by the entity providing the services of the deposition officer. A party in the action who is not represented by an attorney shall be informed by the noticing party that the unrepresented party may request this statement.

(g) The operator shall not distort the appearance or the demeanor of participants in the deposition by the use of camera or sound recording techniques.

(h) The deposition shall begin with an oral or written statement on camera or on the audio recording that includes the operator's name and business address, the name and business address of the operator' s employer, the date, time, and place of the deposition, the caption of the case, the name of the deponent, a specification of the party on whose behalf the deposition is being taken, and any stipulations by the parties.

(i) Counsel for the parties shall identify themselves on camera or on the audio recording.

(j) The oath shall be administered to the deponent on camera or on the audio recording.

(k) If the length of a deposition requires the use of more than one unit of tape or electronic storage, the end of each unit and the beginning of each succeeding unit shall be announced on camera or on the audio recording.

(l) At the conclusion of a deposition, a statement shall be made on camera or on the audio recording that the deposition is ended and shall set forth any stipulations made by counsel concerning the custody of the audio or video recording and the exhibits, or concerning other pertinent matters.

(m) A party intending to offer an audio or video recording of a deposition in evidence under Section 2025 .620 shall notify the court and all parties in writing of that intent and of the parts of the deposition to be offered. That notice shall be given within sufficient time for objections to be made and ruled on by the judge to whom the case is assigned for trial or hearing, and for any editing of the recording. Objections to all or part of the deposition shall be made in writing. The court may permit further designations of testimony and objections as justice may require. With respect to those portions of an audio or video record of deposition testimony that are not designated by any party or that are ruled to be objectionable, the court may order that the party offering the recording of the deposition at the trial or hearing suppress those portions, or that an edited version of the deposition recording be prepared for use at the trial or hearing. The original audio or video record of the deposition shall be preserved unaltered. If no stenographic record of the deposition testimony has previously been made, the party offering an audio or video recording of that testimony under Section 2025 .620 shall accompany that offer with a stenographic transcript prepared from that recording. 
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2025.410.  (a) Any party served with a deposition notice that does
not comply with Article 2 (commencing with Section 2025.210) waives
any error or irregularity unless that party promptly serves a written
objection specifying that error or irregularity at least three
calendar days prior to the date for which the deposition is
scheduled, on the party seeking to take the deposition and any other
attorney or party on whom the deposition notice was served.
   (b) If an objection is made three calendar days before the
deposition date, the objecting party shall make personal service of
that objection pursuant to Section 1011 on the party who gave notice
of the deposition. Any deposition taken after the service of a
written objection shall not be used against the objecting party under
Section 2025.620 if the party did not attend the deposition and if
the court determines that the objection was a valid one.
   (c) In addition to serving this written objection, a party may
also move for an order staying the taking of the deposition and
quashing the deposition notice. This motion shall be accompanied by a
meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040. The taking of
the deposition is stayed pending the determination of this motion.
   (d) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7
(commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or
attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to quash a
deposition notice, unless it finds that the one subject to the
sanction acted with substantial justification or that other
circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.
   (e) (1) Notwithstanding subdivision (d), absent exceptional
circumstances, the court shall not impose sanctions on any party,
person, or attorney for failure to provide electronically stored
information that has been lost, damaged, altered, or overwritten as
the result of the routine, good faith operation of an electronic
information system.
   (2) This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any
obligation to preserve discoverable information.
DISCOVERY ACT TABLE
2025.420.  (a) Before, during, or after a deposition, any party, any
deponent, or any other affected natural person or organization may
promptly move for a protective order. The motion shall be accompanied
by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.
   (b) The court, for good cause shown, may make any order that
justice requires to protect any party, deponent, or other natural
person or organization from unwarranted annoyance, embarrassment, or
oppression, or undue burden and expense. This protective order may
include, but is not limited to, one or more of the following
directions:
   (1) That the deposition not be taken at all.
   (2) That the deposition be taken at a different time.
   (3) That a video recording of the deposition testimony of a
treating or consulting physician or of any expert witness, intended
for possible use at trial under subdivision (d) of Section 2025.620,
be postponed until the moving party has had an adequate opportunity
to prepare, by discovery deposition of the deponent, or other means,
for cross-examination.
   (4) That the deposition be taken at a place other than that
specified in the deposition notice, if it is within a distance
permitted by Sections 2025.250 and 2025.260.
   (5) That the deposition be taken only on certain specified terms
and conditions.
   (6) That the deponent's testimony be taken by written, instead of
oral, examination.
   (7) That the method of discovery be interrogatories to a party
instead of an oral deposition.
   (8) That the testimony be recorded in a manner different from that
specified in the deposition notice.
   (9) That certain matters not be inquired into.
   (10) That the scope of the examination be limited to certain
matters.
   (11) That all or certain of the writings or tangible things
designated in the deposition notice not be produced, inspected,
copied, tested, or sampled, or that conditions be set for the
production of electronically stored information designated in the
deposition notice.
   (12) That designated persons, other than the parties to the action
and their officers and counsel, be excluded from attending the
deposition.
   (13) That a trade secret or other confidential research,
development, or commercial information not be disclosed or be
disclosed only to specified persons or only in a specified way.
   (14) That the parties simultaneously file specified documents
enclosed in sealed envelopes to be opened as directed by the court.
   (15) That the deposition be sealed and thereafter opened only on
order of the court.
   (16) That examination of the deponent be terminated. If an order
terminates the examination, the deposition shall not thereafter be
resumed, except on order of the court.
   (c) The party, deponent, or any other affected natural person or
organization that seeks a protective order regarding the production,
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling of electronically stored
information on the basis that the information is from a source that
is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense shall
bear the burden of demonstrating that the information is from a
source that is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or
expense.
   (d) If the party or affected person from whom discovery of
electronically stored information is sought establishes that the
information is from a source that is not reasonably accessible
because of undue burden or expense, the court may nonetheless order
discovery if the demanding party shows good cause, subject to any
limitations imposed under subdivision (f).
   (e) If the court finds good cause for the production of
electronically stored information from a source that is not
reasonably accessible, the court may set conditions for the discovery
of the electronically stored information, including allocation of
the expense of discovery.
   (f) The court shall limit the frequency or extent of discovery of
electronically stored information, even from a source that is
reasonably accessible, if the court determines that any of the
following conditions exist:
   (1) It is possible to obtain the information from some other
source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive.
   (2) The discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or
duplicative.
   (3) The party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by
discovery in the action to obtain the information sought.
   (4) The likely burden or expense of the proposed discovery
outweighs the likely benefit, taking into account the amount in
controversy, the resources of the parties, the importance of the
issues in the litigation, and the importance of the requested
discovery in resolving the issues.
   (g) If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in
part, the court may order that the deponent provide or permit the
discovery against which protection was sought on those terms and
conditions that are just.
   (h) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7
(commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or
attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion for a
protective order, unless it finds that the one subject to the
sanction acted with substantial justification or that other
circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.
   (i) (1) Notwithstanding subdivision (h), absent exceptional
circumstances, the court shall not impose sanctions on any party,
deponent, or other affected natural person or organization or any of
their attorneys for failure to provide electronically stored
information that has been lost, damaged, altered, or overwritten as
the result of the routine, good faith operation of an electronic
information system.
   (2)  This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any
obligation to preserve discoverable information.

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2025 .430. If the party giving notice of a deposition fails to attend or proceed with it, the court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against that party, or the attorney for that party, or both, and in favor of any party attending in person or by attorney, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

 

2025 .440. (a) If a deponent does not appear for a deposition because the party giving notice of the deposition failed to serve a required deposition subpoena, the court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against that party, or the attorney for that party, or both, in favor of any other party who, in person or by attorney, attended at the time and place specified in the deposition notice in the expectation that the deponent's testimony would be taken, unless the court finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

(b) If a deponent on whom a deposition subpoena has been served fails to attend a deposition or refuses to be sworn as a witness, the court may impose on the deponent the sanctions described in Section 2020.240.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

2025.450.  (a) If, after service of a deposition notice, a party to
the action or an officer, director, managing agent, or employee of a
party, or a person designated by an organization that is a party
under Section 2025.230, without having served a valid objection under
Section 2025.410, fails to appear for examination, or to proceed
with it, or to produce for inspection any document, electronically
stored information, or tangible thing described in the deposition
notice, the party giving the notice may move for an order compelling
the deponent's attendance and testimony, and the production for
inspection of any document, electronically stored information, or
tangible thing described in the deposition notice.

   (b) A motion under subdivision (a) shall comply with both of the
following:
   (1) The motion shall set forth specific facts showing good cause
justifying the production for inspection of any document,
electronically stored information, or tangible thing described in the
deposition notice.
   (2) The motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer
declaration under Section 2016.040, or, when the deponent fails to
attend the deposition and produce the documents, electronically
stored information, or things described in the deposition notice, by
a declaration stating that the petitioner has contacted the deponent
to inquire about the nonappearance.
   (c) In a motion under subdivision (a) relating to the production
of electronically stored information, the party or party-affiliated
deponent objecting to or opposing the production, inspection,
copying, testing, or sampling of electronically stored information on
the basis that the information is from a source that is not
reasonably accessible because of the undue burden or expense shall
bear the burden of demonstrating that the information is from a
source that is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or
expense.
   (d) If the party or party-affiliated deponent from whom discovery
of electronically stored information is sought establishes that the
information is from a source that is not reasonably accessible
because of the undue burden or expense, the court may nonetheless
order discovery if the demanding party shows good cause, subject to
any limitations imposed under subdivision (f).
   (e) If the court finds good cause for the production of
electronically stored information from a source that is not
reasonably accessible, the court may set conditions for the discovery
of the electronically stored information, including allocation of
the expense of discovery.
   (f) The court shall limit the frequency or extent of discovery of
electronically stored information, even from a source that is
reasonably accessible, if the court determines that any of the
following conditions exists:
   (1) It is possible to obtain the information from some other
source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive.
   (2) The discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or
duplicative.
   (3) The party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by
discovery in the action to obtain the information sought.
   (4) The likely burden or expense of the proposed discovery
outweighs the likely benefit, taking into account the amount in
controversy, the resources of the parties, the importance of the
issues in the litigation, and the importance of the requested
discovery in resolving the issues.
   (g) (1) If a motion under subdivision (a) is granted, the court
shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with
Section 2023.010) in favor of the party who noticed the deposition
and against the deponent or the party with whom the deponent is
affiliated, unless the court finds that the one subject to the
sanction acted with substantial justification or that other
circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.
   (2) On motion of any other party who, in person or by attorney,
attended at the time and place specified in the deposition notice in
the expectation that the deponent's testimony would be taken, the
court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing
with Section 2023.010) in favor of that party and against the
deponent or the party with whom the deponent is affiliated, unless
the court finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with
substantial justification or that other circumstances make the
imposition of the sanction unjust.
   (h) If that party or party-affiliated deponent then fails to obey
an order compelling attendance, testimony, and production, the court
may make those orders that are just, including the imposition of an
issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction under
Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against that party
deponent or against the party with whom the deponent is affiliated.
In lieu of, or in addition to, this sanction, the court may impose a
monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010)
against that deponent or against the party with whom that party
deponent is affiliated, and in favor of any party who, in person or
by attorney, attended in the expectation that the deponent's
testimony would be taken pursuant to that order.
   (i) (1) Notwithstanding subdivisions (g) and (h), absent
exceptional circumstances, the court shall not impose sanctions on a
party or any attorney of a party for failure to provide
electronically stored information that has been lost, damaged,
altered, or overwritten as the result of the routine, good faith
operation of an electronic information system.
   (2) This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any
obligation to preserve discoverable information.

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2025.460.  (a) The protection of information from discovery on the
ground that it is privileged or that it is a protected work product
under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010) is waived unless a
specific objection to its disclosure is timely made during the
deposition.

   (b) Errors and irregularities of any kind occurring at the oral
examination that might be cured if promptly presented are waived
unless a specific objection to them is timely made during the
deposition. These errors and irregularities include, but are not
limited to, those relating to the manner of taking the deposition, to
the oath or affirmation administered, to the conduct of a party,
attorney, deponent, or deposition officer, or to the form of any
question or answer. Unless the objecting party demands that the
taking of the deposition be suspended to permit a motion for a
protective order under Sections 2025.420 and 2025.470, the deposition
shall proceed subject to the objection.
   (c) Objections to the competency of the deponent, or to the
relevancy, materiality, or admissibility at trial of the testimony or
of the materials produced are unnecessary and are not waived by
failure to make them before or during the deposition.
   (d) If a deponent objects to the production of electronically
stored information on the grounds that it is from a source that is
not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense and that
the deponent will not search the source in the absence of an
agreement with the deposing party or court order, the deponent shall
identify in its objection the types or categories of sources of
electronically stored information that it asserts are not reasonably
accessible. By objecting and identifying information of a type or
category of source or sources that are not reasonably accessible, the
deponent preserves any objections it may have relating to that
electronically stored information.
   (e) If a deponent fails to answer any question or to produce any
document, electronically stored information, or tangible thing under
the deponent's control that is specified in the deposition notice or
a deposition subpoena, the party seeking that answer or production
may adjourn the deposition or complete the examination on other
matters without waiving the right at a later time to move for an
order compelling that answer or production under Section 2025.480.
   (f) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), if a deponent notifies the
party that took a deposition that electronically stored information
produced pursuant to the deposition notice or subpoena is subject to
a claim of privilege or of protection as attorney work product, as
described in Section 2031.285, the provisions of Section 2031.285
shall apply.
DISCOVERY ACT TABLE


2025 .470. The deposition officer may not suspend the taking of testimony without the stipulation of all parties present unless any party attending the deposition, including the deponent, demands that the deposition officer suspend taking the testimony to enable that party or deponent to move for a protective order under Section 2025 .420 on the ground that the examination is being conducted in bad faith or in a manner that unreasonably annoys, embarrasses, or oppresses that deponent or party.

 

2025.480.  (a) If a deponent fails to answer any question or to
produce any document, electronically stored information, or tangible
thing under the deponent's control that is specified in the
deposition notice or a deposition subpoena, the party seeking
discovery may move the court for an order compelling that answer or
production.
   (b) This motion shall be made no later than 60 days after the
completion of the record of the deposition, and shall be accompanied
by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.
   (c) Notice of this motion shall be given to all parties and to the
deponent either orally at the examination, or by subsequent service
in writing. If the notice of the motion is given orally, the
deposition officer shall direct the deponent to attend a session of
the court at the time specified in the notice.
   (d) In a motion under subdivision (a) relating to the production
of electronically stored information, the deponent objecting to or
opposing the production, inspection, copying, testing, or sampling of
electronically stored information on the basis that the information
is from a source that is not reasonably accessible because of the
undue burden or expense shall bear the burden of demonstrating that
the information is from a source that is not reasonably accessible
because of undue burden or expense.
   (e) If the deponent from whom discovery of electronically stored
information is sought establishes that the information is from a
source that is not reasonably accessible because of the undue burden
or expense, the court may nonetheless order discovery if the deposing
party shows good cause, subject to any limitations imposed under
subdivision (g).
   (f) If the court finds good cause for the production of
electronically stored information from a source that is not
reasonably accessible, the court may set conditions for the discovery
of the electronically stored information, including allocation of
the expense of discovery.
   (g) The court shall limit the frequency or extent of discovery of
electronically stored information, even from a source that is
reasonably accessible, if the court determines that any of the
following conditions exists:
   (1) It is possible to obtain the information from some other
source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive.
   (2) The discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or
duplicative.
   (3) The party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by
discovery in the action to obtain the information sought.
   (4) The likely burden or expense of the proposed discovery
outweighs the likely benefit, taking into account the amount in
controversy, the resources of the parties, the importance of the
issues in the litigation, and the importance of the requested
discovery in resolving the issues.
   (h) Not less than five days prior to the hearing on this motion,
the moving party shall lodge with the court a certified copy of any
parts of the stenographic transcript of the deposition that are
relevant to the motion. If a deposition is recorded by audio or video
technology, the moving party is required to lodge a certified copy
of a transcript of any parts of the deposition that are relevant to
the motion.
   (i) If the court determines that the answer or production sought
is subject to discovery, it shall order that the answer be given or
the production be made on the resumption of the deposition.
   (j) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7
(commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or
attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to compel an
answer or production, unless it finds that the one subject to the
sanction acted with substantial justification or that other
circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.
   (k) If a deponent fails to obey an order entered under this
section, the failure may be considered a contempt of court. In
addition, if the disobedient deponent is a party to the action or an
officer, director, managing agent, or employee of a party, the court
may make those orders that are just against the disobedient party, or
against the party with whom the disobedient deponent is affiliated,
including the imposition of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction,
or a terminating sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section
2023.010). In lieu of or in addition to this sanction, the court may
impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section
2023.010) against that party deponent or against any party with whom
the deponent is affiliated.
   (l) (1) Notwithstanding subdivisions (j) and (k), absent
exceptional circumstances, the court shall not impose sanctions on a
deponent or any attorney of a deponent for failure to provide
electronically stored information that has been lost, damaged,
altered, or overwritten as the result of the routine, good faith
operation of an electronic information system.
   (2) This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any
obligation to preserve discoverable information.
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2025.510.  (a) Unless the parties agree otherwise, the testimony
at any deposition recorded by stenographic means shall be
transcribed.
   (b)  The party noticing the deposition shall bear the cost of that
transcription, unless the court, on motion and for good cause shown,
orders that the cost be borne or shared by another party.
   (c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b) of Section 2025.320, any other
party or the deponent, at the expense of that party or deponent, may
obtain a copy of the transcript.
   (d) If the deposition officer receives a request from a party for
an original or a copy of the deposition transcript, or any portion
thereof, and the full or partial transcript will be available to that
party prior to the time the original or copy would be available to
any other party, the deposition officer shall immediately notify all
other parties attending the deposition of the request, and shall,
upon request by any party other than the party making the original
request, make that copy of the full or partial deposition transcript
available to all parties at the same time.
   (e) Stenographic notes of depositions shall be retained by the
reporter for a period of not less than eight years from the date of
the deposition, where no transcript is produced, and not less than
one year from the date on which the transcript is produced. Those
notes may be either on paper or electronic media, as long as it
allows for satisfactory production of a transcript at any time during
the periods specified.
   (f) At the request of any other party to the action, including a
party who did not attend the taking of the deposition testimony, any
party who records or causes the recording of that testimony by means
of audio or video technology shall promptly do both of the following:

   (1) Permit that other party to hear the audio recording or to view
the video recording.
   (2) Furnish a copy of the audio or video recording to that other
party on receipt of payment of the reasonable cost of making that
copy of the recording.
   (g) If the testimony at the deposition is recorded both
stenographically, and by audio or video technology, the stenographic
transcript is the official record of that testimony for the purpose
of the trial and any subsequent hearing or appeal.
   (h) (1) The requesting attorney or party appearing in propria
persona shall timely pay the deposition officer or the entity
providing the services of the deposition officer for the
transcription or copy of the transcription described in subdivision
(b) or (c), and any other deposition products or services that are
requested either orally or in writing.
   (2) This subdivision shall apply unless responsibility for the
payment is otherwise provided by law or unless the deposition officer
or entity is notified in writing at the time the services or
products are requested that the party or another identified person
will be responsible for payment.
   (3) This subdivision does not prohibit or supersede an agreement
between an attorney and a party allocating responsibility for the
payment of deposition costs to the party.
   (4) The requesting attorney or party appearing in propria persona,
upon the written request of a deposition officer who has obtained a
final judgment for payment of services provided pursuant to this
subdivision, shall provide to the deposition officer an address that
can be used to effectuate service for the purpose of Section 708.110
in the manner specified in Section 415.10.
   (i) For purposes of this section, "deposition product or service"
means any product or service provided in connection with a deposition
that qualifies as shorthand reporting, as described in Section 8017
of the Business and Professions Code, and any product or service
derived from that shorthand reporting.
DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 2025 .520. (a) If the deposition testimony is stenographically recorded, the deposition officer shall send written notice to the deponent and to all parties attending the deposition when the original transcript of the testimony for each session of the deposition is available for reading, correcting, and signing, unless the deponent and the attending parties agree on the record that the reading, correcting, and signing of the transcript of the testimony will be waived or that the reading, correcting, and signing of a transcript of the testimony will take place after the entire deposition has been concluded or at some other specific time.

(b) For 30 days following each notice under subdivision (a), unless the attending parties and the deponent agree on the record or otherwise in writing to a longer or shorter time period, the deponent may change the form or the substance of the answer to a question, and may either approve the transcript of the deposition by signing it, or refuse to approve the transcript by not signing it.

(c) Alternatively, within this same period, the deponent may change the form or the substance of the answer to any question and may approve or refuse to approve the transcript by means of a letter to the deposition officer signed by the deponent which is mailed by certified or registered mail with return receipt requested. A copy of that letter shall be sent by first-class mail to all parties attending the deposition.

(d) For good cause shown, the court may shorten the 30-day period for making changes, approving, or refusing to approve the transcript.

(e) The deposition officer shall indicate on the original of the transcript, if the deponent has not already done so at the office of the deposition officer, any action taken by the deponent and indicate on the original of the transcript, the deponent's approval of, or failure or refusal to approve, the transcript. The deposition officer shall also notify in writing the parties attending the deposition of any changes which the deponent timely made in person.

(f) If the deponent fails or refuses to approve the transcript within the allotted period, the deposition shall be given the same effect as though it had been approved, subject to any changes timely made by the deponent.

(g) Notwithstanding subdivision (f), on a seasonable motion to suppress the deposition, accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040, the court may determine that the reasons given for the failure or refusal to approve the transcript require rejection of the deposition in whole or in part.

(h) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to suppress a deposition under this section, unless the court finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

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2025 .530. (a) If there is no stenographic transcription of the deposition, the deposition officer shall send written notice to the deponent and to all parties attending the deposition that the audio or video recording made by, or at the direction of, any party, is available for review, unless the deponent and all these parties agree on the record to waive the hearing or viewing of the audio or video recording of the testimony.

(b) For 30 days following a notice under subdivision (a), the deponent, either in person or by signed letter to the deposition officer, may change the substance of the answer to any question.

(c) The deposition officer shall set forth in a writing to accompany the recording any changes made by the deponent, as well as either the deponent's signature identifying the deposition as the deponent's own, or a statement of the deponent's failure to supply the signature, or to contact the officer within the period prescribed by subdivision (b).

(d) When a deponent fails to contact the officer within the period prescribed by subdivision (b), or expressly refuses by a signature to identify the deposition as the deponent's own, the deposition shall be given the same effect as though signed.

(e) Notwithstanding subdivision (d), on a reasonable motion to suppress the deposition, accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040, the court may determine that the reasons given for the refusal to sign require rejection of the deposition in whole or in part.

(f) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to suppress a deposition under this section, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

2025 .540. (a) The deposition officer shall certify on the transcript of the deposition, or in a writing accompanying an audio or video record of deposition testimony, as described in Section 2025 .530, that the deponent was duly sworn and that the transcript or recording is a true record of the testimony given.

(b) When prepared as a rough draft transcript, the transcript of the deposition may not be certified and may not be used, cited, or transcribed as the certified transcript of the deposition proceedings. The rough draft transcript may not be cited or used in any way or at any time to rebut or contradict the certified transcript of deposition proceedings as provided by the deposition officer.

 

2025 .550. (a) The certified transcript of a deposition shall not be filed with the court. Instead, the deposition officer shall securely seal that transcript in an envelope or package endorsed with the title of the action and marked: "Deposition of (here insert name of deponent)," and shall promptly transmit it to the attorney for the party who noticed the deposition. This attorney shall store it under conditions that will protect it against loss, destruction, or tampering.

(b) The attorney to whom the transcript of a deposition is transmitted shall retain custody of it until six months after final disposition of the action. At that time, the transcript may be destroyed, unless the court, on motion of any party and for good cause shown, orders that the transcript be preserved for a longer period.                                                                                     top of page

 

2025 .560. (a) An audio or video record of deposition testimony made by, or at the direction of, any party, including a certified tape made by an operator qualified under subdivisions (b) to (f), inclusive, of Section 2025 .340, shall not be filed with the court. Instead, the operator shall retain custody of that record and shall store it under conditions that will protect it against loss, destruction, or tampering, and preserve as far as practicable the quality of the recording and the integrity of the testimony and images it contains.

(b) At the request of any party to the action, including a party who did not attend the taking of the deposition testimony, or at the request of the deponent, that operator shall promptly do both of the following:
(1) Permit the one making the request to hear or to view the recording on receipt of payment of a reasonable charge for providing the facilities for hearing or viewing the recording.
(2) Furnish a copy of the audio or video recording to the one making the request on receipt of payment of the reasonable cost of making that copy of the recording.

(c) The attorney or operator who has custody of an audio or video record of deposition testimony made by, or at the direction of, any party, shall retain custody of it until six months after final disposition of the action. At that time, the audio or video recording may be destroyed or erased, unless the court, on motion of any party and for good cause shown, orders that the recording be preserved for a longer period.

 

2025 .570. (a) Notwithstanding subdivision (b) of Section 2025 .320, unless the court issues an order to the contrary, a copy of the transcript of the deposition testimony made by, or at the direction of, any party, or an audio or video recording of the deposition testimony, if still in the possession of the deposition officer, shall be made available by the deposition officer to any person requesting a copy, on payment of a reasonable charge set by the deposition officer.

(b) If a copy is requested from the deposition officer, the deposition officer shall mail a notice to all parties attending the deposition and to the deponent at the deponent's last known address advising them of all of the following:
(1) The copy is being sought.
(2) The name of the person requesting the copy.
(3) The right to seek a protective order under Section 2025 .420.

(c) If a protective order is not served on the deposition officer within 30 days of the mailing of the notice, the deposition officer shall make the copy available to the person requesting the copy.

(d) This section shall apply only to recorded testimony taken at depositions occurring on or after January 1, 1998.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

2025 .610. (a) Once any party has taken the deposition of any natural person, including that of a party to the action, neither the party who gave, nor any other party who has been served with a deposition notice pursuant to Section 2025 .240 may take a subsequent deposition of that deponent.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), for good cause shown, the court may grant leave to take a subsequent deposition, and the parties, with the consent of any deponent who is not a party, may stipulate that a subsequent deposition be taken.

(c) This section does not preclude taking one subsequent deposition of a natural person who has previously been examined under either or both of the following circumstances:
(1) The person was examined as a result of that person's designation to testify on behalf of an organization under Section 2025 .230.
(2) The person was examined pursuant to a court order under Section 485.230, for the limited purpose of discovering pursuant to Section 485.230 the identity, location, and value of property in which the deponent has an interest.

(d) This section does not authorize the taking of more than one subsequent deposition for the limited purpose of Section 485.230.

 

2025 .620. At the trial or any other hearing in the action, any part or all of a deposition may be used against any party who was present or represented at the taking of the deposition, or who had due notice of the deposition and did not serve a valid objection under Section 2025 .410, so far as admissible under the rules of evidence applied as though the deponent were then present and testifying as a witness, in accordance with the following provisions: (a) Any party may use a deposition for the purpose of contradicting or impeaching the testimony of the deponent as a witness, or for any other purpose permitted by the Evidence Code.                                                            top of page

(b) An adverse party may use for any purpose, a deposition of a party to the action, or of anyone who at the time of taking the deposition was an officer, director, managing agent, employee, agent, or designee under Section 2025 .230 of a party. It is not ground for objection to the use of a deposition of a party under this subdivision by an adverse party that the deponent is available to testify, has testified, or will testify at the trial or other hearing.

(c) Any party may use for any purpose the deposition of any person or organization, including that of any party to the action, if the court finds any of the following:
(1) The deponent resides more than 150 miles from the place of the trial or other hearing.
(2) The deponent, without the procurement or wrongdoing of the proponent of the deposition for the purpose of preventing testimony in open court, is any of the following: (A) Exempted or precluded on the ground of privilege from testifying concerning the matter to which the deponent's testimony is relevant. (B) Disqualified from testifying. (C) Dead or unable to attend or testify because of existing physical or mental illness or infirmity. (D) Absent from the trial or other hearing and the court is unable to compel the deponent's attendance by its process. (E) Absent from the trial or other hearing and the proponent of the deposition has exercised reasonable diligence but has been unable to procure the deponent's attendance by the court's process.
(3) Exceptional circumstances exist that make it desirable to allow the use of any deposition in the interests of justice and with due regard to the importance of presenting the testimony of witnesses orally in open court.

(d) Any party may use a video recording of the deposition testimony of a treating or consulting physician or of any expert witness even though the deponent is available to testify if the deposition notice under Section 2025 .220 reserved the right to use the deposition at trial, and if that party has complied with subdivision (m) of Section 2025 .340.

(e) Subject to the requirements of this chapter, a party may offer in evidence all or any part of a deposition, and if the party introduces only part of the deposition, any other party may introduce any other parts that are relevant to the parts introduced.

(f) Substitution of parties does not affect the right to use depositions previously taken.

(g) When an action has been brought in any court of the United States or of any state, and another action involving the same subject matter is subsequently brought between the same parties or their representatives or successors in interest, all depositions lawfully taken and duly filed in the initial action may be used in the subsequent action as if originally taken in that subsequent action. A deposition previously taken may also be used as permitted by the Evidence Code.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

OUT OF STATE DEPOSITION
C.C.P. 2026
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2026.010. (a) Any party may obtain discovery by taking an oral

deposition, as described in Section 2025.010, in another state of the
United States, or in a territory or an insular possession subject to
its jurisdiction. Except as modified in this section, the procedures
for taking oral depositions in California set forth in Chapter 9
(commencing with Section 2025.010) apply to an oral deposition taken
in another state of the United States, or in a territory or an
insular possession subject to its jurisdiction.
   (b) If a deponent is a party to the action or an officer,
director, managing agent, or employee of a party, the service of the
deposition notice is effective to compel that deponent to attend and
to testify, as well as to produce any document, electronically stored
information, or tangible thing for inspection, copying, testing, or
sampling. The deposition notice shall specify a place in the state,
territory, or insular possession of the United States that is within
75 miles of the residence or a business office of a deponent.
   (c) If the deponent is not a party to the action or an officer,
director, managing agent, or employee of a party, a party serving a
deposition notice under this section shall use any process and
procedures required and available under the laws of the state,
territory, or insular possession where the deposition is to be taken
to compel the deponent to attend and to testify, as well as to
produce any document, electronically stored information, or tangible
thing for inspection, copying, testing, sampling, and any related
activity.
   (d) A deposition taken under this section shall be conducted in
either of the following ways:
   (1) Under the supervision of a person who is authorized to
administer oaths by the laws of the United States or those of the
place where the examination is to be held, and who is not otherwise
disqualified under Section 2025.320 and subdivisions (b) to (f),
inclusive, of Section 2025.340.
   (2) Before a person appointed by the court.
   (e) An appointment under subdivision (d) is effective to authorize
that person to administer oaths and to take testimony.
   (f) On request, the clerk of the court shall issue a commission
authorizing the deposition in another state or place. The commission
shall request that process issue in the place where the examination
is to be held, requiring attendance and enforcing the obligations of
the deponents to produce documents and electronically stored
information and answer questions. The commission shall be issued by
the clerk to any party in any action pending in its venue without a
noticed motion or court order. The commission may contain terms that
are required by the foreign jurisdiction to initiate the process. If
a court order is required by the foreign jurisdiction, an order for a
commission may be obtained by ex parte application.

 

OUT OF COUNTRY DEPOSITION
C.C.P. §2027
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2027.010. (a) Any party may obtain discovery by taking an oral

deposition, as described in Section 2025.010, in a foreign nation.
Except as modified in this section, the procedures for taking oral
depositions in California set forth in Chapter 9 (commencing with
Section 2025.010) apply to an oral deposition taken in a foreign
nation.
   (b) If a deponent is a party to the action or an officer,
director, managing agent, or employee of a party, the service of the
deposition notice is effective to compel the deponent to attend and
to testify, as well as to produce any document, electronically stored
information, or tangible thing for inspection, copying, testing, or
sampling.
   (c) If a deponent is not a party to the action or an officer,
director, managing agent or employee of a party, a party serving a
deposition notice under this section shall use any process and
procedures required and available under the laws of the foreign
nation where the deposition is to be taken to compel the deponent to
attend and to testify, as well as to produce any document,
electronically stored information, or tangible thing for inspection,
copying, testing, sampling, and any related activity.
   (d) A deposition taken under this section shall be conducted under
the supervision of any of the following:
   (1) A person who is authorized to administer oaths or their
equivalent by the laws of the United States or of the foreign nation,
and who is not otherwise disqualified under Section 2025.320 and
subdivisions (b) to (f), inclusive, of Section 2025.340.
   (2) A person or officer appointed by commission or under letters
rogatory.
   (3) Any person agreed to by all the parties.
   (e) On motion of the party seeking to take an oral deposition in a
foreign nation, the court in which the action is pending shall issue
a commission, letters rogatory, or a letter of request, if it
determines that one is necessary or convenient. The commission,
letters rogatory, or letter of request may include any terms and
directions that are just and appropriate. The deposition officer may
be designated by name or by descriptive title in the deposition
notice and in the commission. Letters rogatory or a letter of request
may be addressed: "To the Appropriate Judicial Authority in name of
foreign nation]."
DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

DEPOSITION ON WRITTEN QUESTIONS
C.C.P. 2028
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2028.010. Any party may obtain discovery by taking a deposition by written questions instead of by oral examination. Except as modified in this chapter, the procedures for taking oral depositions set forth in Chapters 9 (commencing with Section 2025.010) and 10 (commencing with Section 2026 .010) apply to written depositions.

 
2028.020. The notice of a written deposition shall comply with Sections 2025.220 and 2025.230, and with subdivision (c) of Section 2020.240, except as follows:
(a) The name or descriptive title, as well as the address, of the deposition officer shall be stated.
(b) The date, time, and place for commencement of the deposition may be left to future determination by the deposition officer.

 
2028.030. (a) The questions to be propounded to the deponent by direct examination shall accompany the notice of a written deposition.

(b) Within 30 days after the deposition notice and questions are served, a party shall serve any cross questions on all other parties entitled to notice of the deposition.

(c) Within 15 days after being served with cross questions, a party shall serve any redirect questions on all other parties entitled to notice of the deposition.

(d) Within 15 days after being served with redirect questions, a party shall serve any recross questions on all other parties entitled to notice of the deposition.

(e) The court may, for good cause shown, extend or shorten the time periods for the interchange of cross, redirect, and recross questions.

 

2028.040. (a) A party who objects to the form of any question shall serve a specific objection to that question on all parties entitled to notice of the deposition within 15 days after service of the question. A party who fails to timely serve an objection to the form of a question waives it.

(b) The objecting party shall promptly move the court to sustain the objection. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040. Unless the court has sustained that objection, the deposition officer shall propound to the deponent that question subject to that objection as to its form.

(c) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to sustain an objection, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.             top of page

 
2028.050. (a) A party who objects to any question on the ground that it calls for information that is privileged or is protected work product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010) shall serve a specific objection to that question on all parties entitled to notice of the deposition within 15 days after service of the question. A party who fails to timely serve that objection waives it.

(b) The party propounding any question to which an objection is made on those grounds may then move the court for an order overruling that objection. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040. The deposition officer shall not propound to the deponent any question to which a written objection on those grounds has been served unless the court has overruled that objection.

(c) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to overrule an objection, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

 
2028.060. (a) The party taking a written deposition may forward to the deponent a copy of the questions on direct examination for study prior to the deposition.

(b) No party or attorney shall permit the deponent to preview the form or the substance of any cross, redirect, or recross questions.

 
2028.070. In addition to any appropriate order listed in Section 2025.420, the court may order any of the following:

(a) That the deponent's testimony be taken by oral, instead of written, examination.

(b) That one or more of the parties receiving notice of the written deposition be permitted to attend in person or by attorney and to propound questions to the deponent by oral examination.

(c) That objections under Sections 2028.040 and 2028.050 be sustained or overruled.

(d) That the deposition be taken before an officer other than the one named or described in the deposition notice.

 
2028.080. The party taking a written deposition shall deliver to the officer designated in the deposition notice a copy of that notice and of all questions served under Section 2028.030. The deposition officer shall proceed promptly to propound the questions and to take and record the testimony of the deponent in response to the questions.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

DEPOSITION IN OUT OF STATE ACTION
C.C.P. 2029
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2029 .010. Whenever any mandate, writ, letters rogatory, letter of request, or commission is issued out of any court of record in any other state, territory, or district of the United States, or in a foreign nation, or whenever, on notice or agreement, it is required to take the oral or written deposition of a natural person in California, the deponent may be compelled to appear and testify, and to produce documents and things, in the same manner, and by the same process as may be employed for the purpose of taking testimony in actions pending in California.


2029.200. In this article:

   (a) "Foreign jurisdiction" means either of the following:
   (1) A state other than this state.
   (2) A foreign nation.
   (b) "Foreign subpoena" means a subpoena issued under authority of
a court of record of a foreign jurisdiction.
   (c) "Person" means an individual, corporation, business trust,
estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association,
joint venture, public corporation, government, or governmental
subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, or any other legal or
commercial entity.
   (d) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of
Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, a federally recognized
Indian tribe, or any territory or insular possession subject to the
jurisdiction of the United States.
   (e) "Subpoena" means a document, however denominated, issued under
authority of a court of record requiring a person to do any of the
following:
   (1) Attend and give testimony at a deposition.
   (2) Produce and permit inspection, copying, testing, or sampling
of designated books, documents, records, electronically stored
information, or tangible things in the possession, custody, or
control of the person.
   (3) Permit inspection of premises under the control of the person.

 INTERROGATORIES

§ 2030.010. Scope & subject; From party to a party
§ 2030.020. 10 day hold on plaintiff
§ 2030.030. Number: 35 special if ofject; unlimited form
§ 2030.040. Declaration for more; Protective Order to object to more
§ 2030.050. Attach Form Declaration in support of more;
Responder motion for protective order; Propounder burden to justify
§ 2030.060. Form and contents: definitions; No preface, subparts, etc
§ 2030.070. Supplemental interrog. for later acquired information
§ 2030.080. Service on all parties
§ 2030.090. Protective Order by any party or affected person
§ 2030.210. "under oath separately to each"; answer, object, sub§ .230
§ 2030.220. "complete and straightforward" answer
§ 2030.230. Answer requiring compilation from writings
§ 2030.240. Objection: "specific ground" " particular privilege"
§ 2030.250. Party signs under oath; If any objection, attorney signs
§ 2030.260. Service "within 30 days"; motion to extend
§ 2030.270. Agreement to extend time: writing; specific data
§ 2030.280. Retention of original interrog & response
§ 2030.290. Untimely response waives rights to object; relief
§ 2030.300. Further Response: within 45 days; waive right if untimely
§ 2030.310. Amended answer; Use at Trial; motion to make binding
§ 2030.410. Use at trial only against responding party

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 2030 .010. (a) Any party may obtain discovery within the scope delimited by Chapters 2 (commencing with Section 2017.010) and 3 (commencing with Section 2017.710), and subject to the restrictions set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 2019.010), by propounding to any other party to the action written interrogatories to be answered under oath.

(b) An interrogatory may relate to whether another party is making a certain contention, or to the facts, witnesses, and writings on which a contention is based. An interrogatory is not objectionable because an answer to it involves an opinion or contention that relates to fact or the application of law to fact, or would be based on information obtained or legal theories developed in anticipation of litigation or in preparation for trial.

2030 .020. (a) A defendant may propound interrogatories to a party to the action without leave of court at any time.

(b) A plaintiff may propound interrogatories to a party without leave of court at any time that is 10 days after the service of the summons on, or in unlawful detainer actions five days after service of the summons on or appearance by, that party, whichever occurs first.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), on motion with or without notice, the court, for good cause shown, may grant leave to a plaintiff to propound interrogatories at an earlier time.

 2030 .030. (a) A party may propound to another party either or both of the following:
(1) Thirty-five specially prepared interrogatories that are relevant to the subject matter of the pending action.
(2) Any additional number of official form interrogatories, as described in Chapter 17 (commencing with Section 2033.710), that are relevant to the subject matter of the pending action.

(b) Except as provided in Section 2030 .070, no party shall, as a matter of right, propound to any other party more than 35 specially prepared interrogatories. If the initial set of interrogatories does not exhaust this limit, the balance may be propounded in subsequent sets.

(c) Unless a declaration as described in Section 2030 .050 has been made, a party need only respond to the first 35 specially prepared interrogatories served, if that party states an objection to the balance, under Section 2030 .240, on the ground that the limit has been exceeded.

2030 .040. (a) Subject to the right of the responding party to seek a protective order under Section 2030 .090, any party who attaches a supporting declaration as described in Section 2030 .050 may propound a greater number of specially prepared interrogatories to another party if this greater number is warranted because of any of the following:
(1) The complexity or the quantity of the existing and potential issues in the particular case.
(2) The financial burden on a party entailed in conducting the discovery by oral deposition.
(3) The expedience of using this method of discovery to provide to the responding party the opportunity to conduct an inquiry, investigation, or search of files or records to supply the information sought.

(b) If the responding party seeks a protective order on the ground that the number of specially prepared interrogatories is unwarranted, the propounding party shall have the burden of justifying the number of these interrogatories.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

2030 .050. Any party who is propounding or has propounded more than 35 specially prepared interrogatories to any other party shall attach to each set of those interrogatories a declaration containing substantially the following:

DECLARATION FOR ADDITIONAL DISCOVERY I, __________, declare: 1. I am (a party to this action or proceeding appearing in propria persona) (presently the attorney for __________, a party to this action or proceeding). 2. I am propounding to __________ the attached set of interrogatories. 3. This set of interrogatories will cause the total number of specially prepared interrogatories propounded to the party to whom they are directed to exceed the number of specially prepared interrogatories permitted by Section 2030 .030 of the Code of Civil Procedure . 4. I have previously propounded a total of __________ interrogatories to this party, of which __________ interrogatories were not official form interrogatories. 5. This set of interrogatories contains a total of __________ specially prepared interrogatories. 6. I am familiar with the issues and the previous discovery conducted by all of the parties in the case. 7. I have personally examined each of the questions in this set of interrogatories. 8. This number of questions is warranted under Section 2030 .040 of the Code of Civil Procedure because __________. (Here state each factor described in Section 2030 .040 that is relied on, as well as the reasons why any factor relied on is applicable to the instant lawsuit.) 9. None of the questions in this set of interrogatories is being propounded for any improper purpose, such as to harass the party, or the attorney for the party, to whom it is directed, or to cause unnecessary delay or needless increase in the cost of litigation. I declare under penalty of perjury under the laws of California that the foregoing is true and correct, and that this declaration was executed on __________.

___________________________________________
(Signature)
Attorney for ______________________________

2030 .060. (a) A party propounding interrogatories shall number each set of interrogatories consecutively.

(b) In the first paragraph immediately below the title of the case, there shall appear the identity of the propounding party, the set number, and the identity of the responding party.

(c) Each interrogatory in a set shall be separately set forth and identified by number or letter.

(d) Each interrogatory shall be full and complete in and of itself. No preface or instruction shall be included with a set of interrogatories unless it has been approved under Chapter 17 (commencing with Section 2033.710).

(e) Any term specially defined in a set of interrogatories shall be typed with all letters capitalized wherever that term appears.

(f) No specially prepared interrogatory shall contain subparts, or a compound, conjunctive, or disjunctive question.

(g) An interrogatory may not be made a continuing one so as to impose on the party responding to it a duty to supplement an answer to it that was initially correct and complete with later acquired information.                              top of page

 

2030 .070. (a) In addition to the number of interrogatories permitted by Sections 2030 .030 and 2030 .040, a party may propound a supplemental interrogatory to elicit any later acquired information bearing on all answers previously made by any party in response to interrogatories.

(b) A party may propound a supplemental interrogatory twice before the initial setting of a trial date, and, subject to the time limits on discovery proceedings and motions provided in Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 2024.010), once after the initial setting of a trial date.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a) and (b), on motion, for good cause shown, the court may grant leave to a party to propound an additional number of supplemental interrogatories.

2030 .080. (a) The party propounding interrogatories shall serve a copy of them on the party to whom the interrogatories are directed.

(b) The propounding party shall also serve a copy of the interrogatories on all other parties who have appeared in the action. On motion, with or without notice, the court may relieve the party from this requirement on its determination that service on all other parties would be unduly expensive or burdensome.

 DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

2030 .090. (a) When interrogatories have been propounded, the responding party, and any other party or affected natural person or organization may promptly move for a protective order. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(b) The court, for good cause shown, may make any order that justice requires to protect any party or other natural person or organization from unwarranted annoyance, embarrassment, or oppression, or undue burden and expense. This protective order may include, but is not limited to, one or more of the following directions: (1) That the set of interrogatories, or particular interrogatories in the set, need not be answered.
(2) That, contrary to the representations made in a declaration submitted under Section 2030 .050, the number of specially prepared interrogatories is unwarranted.
(3) That the time specified in Section 2030 .260 to respond to the set of interrogatories, or to particular interrogatories in the set, be extended.
(4) That the response be made only on specified terms and conditions.
(5) That the method of discovery be an oral deposition instead of interrogatories to a party.
(6) That a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information not be disclosed or be disclosed only in a certain way.
(7) That some or all of the answers to interrogatories be sealed and thereafter opened only on order of the court. (c) If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in part, the court may order that the party provide or permit the discovery against which protection was sought on terms and conditions that are just.

(d) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion for a protective order under this section, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

2030 .210. (a) The party to whom interrogatories have been propounded shall respond in writing under oath separately to each interrogatory by any of the following:
(1) An answer containing the information sought to be discovered.
(2) An exercise of the party's option to produce writings.
(3) An objection to the particular interrogatory.

(b) In the first paragraph of the response immediately below the title of the case, there shall appear the identity of the responding party, the set number, and the identity of the propounding party.

(c) Each answer, exercise of option, or objection in the response shall bear the same identifying number or letter and be in the same sequence as the corresponding interrogatory, but the text of that interrogatory need not be repeated.

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2030 .220. (a) Each answer in a response to interrogatories shall be as complete and straightforward as the information reasonably available to the responding party permits.

(b) If an interrogatory cannot be answered completely, it shall be answered to the extent possible.

(c) If the responding party does not have personal knowledge sufficient to respond fully to an interrogatory, that party shall so state, but shall make a reasonable and good faith effort to obtain the information by inquiry to other natural persons or organizations, except where the information is equally available to the propounding party.

2030 .230. If the answer to an interrogatory would necessitate the preparation or the making of a compilation, abstract, audit, or summary of or from the documents of the party to whom the interrogatory is directed, and if the burden or expense of preparing or making it would be substantially the same for the party propounding the interrogatory as for the responding party, it is a sufficient answer to that interrogatory to refer to this section and to specify the writings from which the answer may be derived or ascertained. This specification shall be in sufficient detail to permit the propounding party to locate and to identify, as readily as the responding party can, the documents from which the answer may be ascertained. The responding party shall then afford to the propounding party a reasonable opportunity to examine, audit, or inspect these documents and to make copies, compilations, abstracts, or summaries of them.

2030 .240. (a) If only a part of an interrogatory is objectionable, the remainder of the interrogatory shall be answered.

(b) If an objection is made to an interrogatory or to a part of an interrogatory, the specific ground for the objection shall be set forth clearly in the response. If an objection is based on a claim of privilege, the particular privilege invoked shall be clearly stated. If an objection is based on a claim that the information sought is protected work product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010), that claim shall be expressly asserted.

2030 .250. (a) The party to whom the interrogatories are directed shall sign the response under oath unless the response contains only objections.

(b) If that party is a public or private corporation, or a partnership, association, or governmental agency, one of its officers or agents shall sign the response under oath on behalf of that party. If the officer or agent signing the response on behalf of that party is an attorney acting in that capacity for the party, that party waives any lawyer-client privilege and any protection for work product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010) during any subsequent discovery from that attorney concerning the identity of the sources of the information contained in the response.

(c) The attorney for the responding party shall sign any responses that contain an objection.

2030 .260. (a) Within 30 days after service of interrogatories, or in unlawful detainer actions within five days after service of interrogatories the party to whom the interrogatories are propounded shall serve the original of the response to them on the propounding party, unless on motion of the propounding party the court has shortened the time for response, or unless on motion of the responding party the court has extended the time for response. In unlawful detainer actions, the party to whom the interrogatories are propounded shall have five days from the date of service to respond unless on motion of the propounding party the court has shortened the time for response.

(b) The party to whom the interrogatories are propounded shall also serve a copy of the response on all other parties who have appeared in the action. On motion, with or without notice, the court may relieve the party from this requirement on its determination that service on all other parties would be unduly expensive or burdensome.

2030 .270. (a) The party propounding interrogatories and the responding party may agree to extend the time for service of a response to a set of interrogatories, or to particular interrogatories in a set, to a date beyond that provided in Section 2030 .260.

(b) This agreement may be informal, but it shall be confirmed in a writing that specifies the extended date for service of a response.

(c) Unless this agreement expressly states otherwise, it is effective to preserve to the responding party the right to respond to any interrogatory to which the agreement applies in any manner specified in Sections 2030 .210, 2030 .220, 2030 .230, and 2030 .240.

2030 .280. (a) The interrogatories and the response thereto shall not be filed with the court.

(b) The propounding party shall retain both the original of the interrogatories, with the original proof of service affixed to them, and the original of the sworn response until six months after final disposition of the action. At that time, both originals may be destroyed, unless the court on motion of any party and for good cause shown orders that the originals be preserved for a longer period.

2030 .290. If a party to whom interrogatories are directed fails to serve a timely response, the following rules apply:

(a) The party to whom the interrogatories are directed waives any right to exercise the option to produce writings under Section 2030 .230, as well as any objection to the interrogatories, including one based on privilege or on the protection for work product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010). The court, on motion, may relieve that party from this waiver on its determination that both of the following conditions are satisfied:
(1) The party has subsequently served a response that is in substantial compliance with Sections 2030 .210, 2030 .220, 2030 .230, and 2030 .240.
(2) The party's failure to serve a timely response was the result of mistake, inadvertence, or excusable neglect.

(b) The party propounding the interrogatories may move for an order compelling response to the interrogatories.

(c) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to compel a response to interrogatories, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust. If a party then fails to obey an order compelling answers, the court may make those orders that are just, including the imposition of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010). In lieu of or in addition to that sanction, the court may impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010).                                                                                             top of page

2030 .300. (a) On receipt of a response to interrogatories, the propounding party may move for an order compelling a further response if the propounding party deems that any of the following apply:
(1) An answer to a particular interrogatory is evasive or incomplete.
(2) An exercise of the option to produce documents under Section 2030 .230 is unwarranted or the required specification of those documents is inadequate.
(3) An objection to an interrogatory is without merit or too general.

(b) A motion under subdivision (a) shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(c) Unless notice of this motion is given within 45 days of the service of the response, or any supplemental response, or on or before any specific later date to which the propounding party and the responding party have agreed in writing, the propounding party waives any right to compel a further response to the interrogatories.

(d) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to compel a further response to interrogatories, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

(e) If a party then fails to obey an order compelling further response to interrogatories, the court may make those orders that are just, including the imposition of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010). In lieu of or in addition to that sanction, the court may impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010).

2030 .310. (a) Without leave of court, a party may serve an amended answer to any interrogatory that contains information subsequently discovered, inadvertently omitted, or mistakenly stated in the initial interrogatory. At the trial of the action, the propounding party or any other party may use the initial answer under Section 2030 .410, and the responding party may then use the amended answer.

(b) The party who propounded an interrogatory to which an amended answer has been served may move for an order that the initial answer to that interrogatory be deemed binding on the responding party for the purpose of the pending action. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(c) The court shall grant a motion under subdivision (b) if it determines that all of the following conditions are satisfied:
(1) The initial failure of the responding party to answer the interrogatory correctly has substantially prejudiced the party who propounded the interrogatory.
(2) The responding party has failed to show substantial justification for the initial answer to that interrogatory.
(3) The prejudice to the propounding party cannot be cured either by a continuance to permit further discovery or by the use of the initial answer under Section 2030 .410.

(d) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to deem binding an initial answer to an interrogatory, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

2030 . 410 . At the trial or any other hearing in the action, so far as admissible under the rules of evidence, the propounding party or any party other than the responding party may use any answer or part of an answer to an interrogatory only against the responding party. It is not ground for objection to the use of an answer to an interrogatory that the responding party is available to testify, has testified, or will testify at the trial or other hearing.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE


CHAPTER 14. INSPECTION, COPYING, TESTING, SAMPLING, AND PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS,
ELECTRONICALLY STORED INFORMATION, TANGIBLE
THINGS, LAND, AND OTHER PROPERTY

C.C.P. § 2031
§2031.010. Subject matter; demand from party to party. [(e)ESI
§2031.020. Hold on plaintiff
§2031.030. Request
Form: may specify form of ESI (a)(2);
specific description / "reasonable particularity";
specify time (30 days min.), place, related activity, destructive testing
§2031.040. Service on all parties
§2031.050. Supplemental demand
                re later acquired or discovered items
§2031.060. Protective Order
    by party or person affected
   (c)-(f) inaccessible ESI due to burden or expense
§2031.210. Response: Comply; Lack Ability to comply; Object in whole or part SEE (d)ESI source inaccesible
§2031.220. Comply; in whole or part
§2031.230. Lack of Ability: Search efforts; Reasons; ID Custodian
§2031.240. Object: "specific ground" or "particular privilege"for objection;
"identify [item of objection] with particularity"
See also .280(c) objection to production of ESI in specified form
§ 2031.250. Party signs response; attorney signs if objection
§ 2031.260. Time limits. Service of response within 30 days; motion to extend
§ 2031.270. Agreement to extend time: writing; specific date
§ 2031.280. Production Manner:
by category / as in usual course business;
translate data compilations; cost shifting
(c) objections to & specification of ESI form
§ 2031.285 ESI privileges: AC &  WP
§ 2031.290. Retention of originals
§ 2031.300. Waivers. Untimely response waives objections & privileges; relief;
(d)(1) ESI safe harbor from sanctions
§ 2031.310. Motion Further response: within 45 days; waive right if untimely
ESI inaccessible data, BofP, cost shifting, safe harbor
§ 2031.320. Motion to compel compliance with response; ESI safe harbor
§ 2031.510. Disclosure in land boundary disputes

For non-parties see C.C.P. §2020.410 & C.C.P. §2020.510
2031.010.  (a) Any party may obtain discovery within the scope
delimited by Chapters 2 (commencing with Section 2017.010) and 3
(commencing with Section 2017.710), and subject to the restrictions
set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 2019.010), by
inspecting, copying, testing, or sampling documents, tangible things,
land or other property, and electronically stored information in the
possession, custody, or control of any other party to the action.
(b) A party may demand that any other party produce and permit the
party making the demand, or someone acting on that party's behalf,
to inspect and to copy a document that is in the possession, custody,
or control of the party on whom the demand is made.
(c) A party may demand that any other party produce and permit the
party making the demand, or someone acting on that party's behalf,
to inspect and to photograph, test, or sample any tangible things
that are in the possession, custody, or control of the party on whom
the demand is made.
(d) A party may demand that any other party allow the party making
the demand, or someone acting on that party's behalf, to enter on
any land or other property that is in the possession, custody, or
control of the party on whom the demand is made, and to inspect and
to measure, survey, photograph, test, or sample the land or other
property, or any designated object or operation on it.
(e) A party may demand that any other party produce and permit the
party making the demand, or someone acting on that party's behalf,
to inspect, copy, test, or sample electronically stored information
in the possession, custody, or control of the party on whom demand is
made.




2031.020. (a) A defendant may make a demand for inspection,
copying, testing, or sampling without leave of court at any time.
(b) A plaintiff may make a demand for inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling without leave of court at any time that is 10
days after the service of the summons on, or appearance by, the party
to whom the demand is directed, whichever occurs first.
(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), in an unlawful detainer
action or other proceeding under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section
1159) of Title 3 of Part 3, a plaintiff may make a demand for
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling without leave of court at
any time that is five days after service of the summons on, or
appearance by, the party to whom the demand is directed, whichever
occurs first.
(d) Notwithstanding subdivisions (b) and (c), on motion with or
without notice, the court, for good cause shown, may grant leave to a
plaintiff to make a demand for inspection, copying, testing, or
sampling at an earlier time.




2031.030. (a) (1) A party demanding inspection, copying, testing,
or sampling shall number each set of demands consecutively.
(2) A party demanding inspection, copying, testing, or sampling of
electronically stored information may specify the form or forms in
which each type of electronically stored information is to be
produced.
(b) In the first paragraph immediately below the title of the
case, there shall appear the identity of the demanding party, the set
number, and the identity of the responding party.
(c) Each demand in a set shall be separately set forth, identified
by number or letter, and shall do all of the following:
(1) Designate the documents, tangible things, land or other
property, or electronically stored information to be inspected,
copied, tested, or sampled either by specifically describing each
individual item or by reasonably particularizing each category of
item.
(2) Specify a reasonable time for the inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling that is at least 30 days after service of the
demand, unless the court for good cause shown has granted leave to
specify an earlier date. In an unlawful detainer action or other
proceeding under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 1159) of Title 3
of Part 3, the demand shall specify a reasonable time for the
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling that is at least five days
after service of the demand, unless the court, for good cause shown,
has granted leave to specify an earlier date.
(3) Specify a reasonable place for making the inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling, and performing any related activity.
(4) Specify any inspection, copying, testing, sampling, or related
activity that is being demanded, as well as the manner in which that
activity will be performed, and whether that activity will
permanently alter or destroy the item involved.




2031.040. The party making a demand for inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling shall serve a copy of the demand on the party to
whom it is directed and on all other parties who have appeared in
the action.


2031.050. (a) In addition to the demands for inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling permitted by this chapter, a party may propound
a supplemental demand to inspect, copy, test, or sample any later
acquired or discovered documents, tangible things, land or other
property, or electronically stored information in the possession,
custody, or control of the party on whom the demand is made.
(b) A party may propound a supplemental demand for inspection,
copying, testing, or sampling twice before the initial setting of a
trial date, and, subject to the time limits on discovery proceedings
and motions provided in Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 2024.010),
once after the initial setting of a trial date.
(c) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a) and (b), on motion, for good
cause shown, the court may grant leave to a party to propound an
additional number of supplemental demands for inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling.



2031.060. (a) When an inspection, copying, testing, or sampling of
documents, tangible things, places, or electronically stored
information has been demanded, the party to whom the demand has been
directed, and any other party or affected person, may promptly move
for a protective order. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet
and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.
(b) The court, for good cause shown, may make any order that
justice requires to protect any party or other person from
unwarranted annoyance, embarrassment, or oppression, or undue burden
and expense. This protective order may include, but is not limited
to, one or more of the following directions:
(1) That all or some of the items or categories of items in the
demand need not be produced or made available at all.
(2) That the time specified in Section 2030.260 to respond to the
set of demands, or to a particular item or category in the set, be
extended.
(3) That the place of production be other than that specified in
the demand.
(4) That the inspection, copying, testing, or sampling be made
only on specified terms and conditions.
(5) That a trade secret or other confidential research,
development, or commercial information not be disclosed, or be
disclosed only to specified persons or only in a specified way.
(6) That the items produced be sealed and thereafter opened only
on order of the court.
(c) The party or affected person who seeks a protective order
regarding the production, inspection, copying, testing, or sampling
of electronically stored information on the basis that the
information is from a source that is not reasonably accessible
because of undue burden or expense shall bear the burden of
demonstrating that the information is from a source that is not
reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense.
(d) If the party or affected person from whom discovery of
electronically stored information is sought establishes that the
information is from a source that is not reasonably accessible
because of undue burden or expense, the court may nonetheless order
discovery if the demanding party shows good cause, subject to any
limitations imposed under subdivision (f).
(e) If the court finds good cause for the production of
electronically stored information from a source that is not
reasonably accessible, the court may set conditions for the discovery
of the electronically stored information, including allocation of
the expense of discovery.
(f) The court shall limit the frequency or extent of discovery of
electronically stored information, even from a source that is
reasonably accessible, if the court determines that any of the
following conditions exist:
(1) It is possible to obtain the information from some other
source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive.
(2) The discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or
duplicative.
(3) The party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by
discovery in the action to obtain the information sought.
(4) The likely burden or expense of the proposed discovery
outweighs the likely benefit, taking into account the amount in
controversy, the resources of the parties, the importance of the
issues in the litigation, and the importance of the requested
discovery in resolving the issues.
(g) If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in
part, the court may order that the party to whom the demand was
directed provide or permit the discovery against which protection was
sought on terms and conditions that are just.
(h) Except as provided in subdivision (i), the court shall impose
a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section
2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully
makes or opposes a motion for a protective order, unless it finds
that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial
justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the
sanction unjust.
(i) (1) Notwithstanding subdivision (h), absent exceptional
circumstances, the court shall not impose sanctions on a party or any
attorney of a party for failure to provide electronically stored
information that has been lost, damaged, altered, or overwritten as
the result of the routine, good faith operation of an electronic
information system.
(2) This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any
obligation to preserve discoverable information.




2031.210.  (a) The party to whom a demand for inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling has been directed shall respond separately to
each item or category of item by any of the following:
(1) A statement that the party will comply with the particular
demand for inspection, copying, testing, or sampling by the date set
for the inspection, copying, testing, or sampling pursuant to
paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section 2031.030 and any related
activities.
(2) A representation that the party lacks the ability to comply
with the demand for inspection, copying, testing, or sampling of a
particular item or category of item.
(3) An objection to the particular demand for inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling.
(b) In the first paragraph of the response immediately below the
title of the case, there shall appear the identity of the responding
party, the set number, and the identity of the demanding party.
(c) Each statement of compliance, each representation, and each
objection in the response shall bear the same number and be in the
same sequence as the corresponding item or category in the demand,
but the text of that item or category need not be repeated.
(d) If a party objects to the discovery of electronically stored

information on the grounds that it is from a source that is not
reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense and that the
responding party will not search the source in the absence of an
agreement with the demanding party or court order, the responding
party shall identify in its response the types or categories of
sources of electronically stored information that it asserts are not
reasonably accessible. By objecting and identifying information of a
type or category of source or sources that are not reasonably
accessible, the responding party preserves any objections it may have
relating to that electronically stored information.



2031.220. A statement that the party to whom a demand for
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling has been directed will
comply with the particular demand shall state that the production,
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling, and related activity
demanded, will be allowed either in whole or in part, and that all
documents or things in the demanded category that are in the
possession, custody, or control of that party and to which no
objection is being made will be included in the production.



2031.230. A representation of inability to comply with the
particular demand for inspection, copying, testing, or sampling shall
affirm that a diligent search and a reasonable inquiry has been made
in an effort to comply with that demand. This statement shall also
specify whether the inability to comply is because the particular
item or category has never existed, has been destroyed, has been
lost, misplaced, or stolen, or has never been, or is no longer, in
the possession, custody, or control of the responding party. The
statement shall set forth the name and address of any natural person
or organization known or believed by that party to have possession,
custody, or control of that item or category of item.




2031.240. (a) If only part of an item or category of item in a
demand for inspection, copying, testing, or sampling is
objectionable, the response shall contain a statement of compliance,
or a representation of inability to comply with respect to the
remainder of that item or category.
(b) If the responding party objects to the demand for inspection,
copying, testing, or sampling of an item or category of item, the
response shall do both of the following:
(1) Identify with particularity any document, tangible thing,
land, or electronically stored information falling within any
category of item in the demand to which an objection is being made.
(2) Set forth clearly the extent of, and the specific ground for,
the objection. If an objection is based on a claim of privilege, the
particular privilege invoked shall be stated. If an objection is
based on a claim that the information sought is protected work
product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010), that
claim shall be expressly asserted.
(c) (1) If an objection is based on a claim of privilege or a claim that the information sought is protected work product, the response shall provide sufficient factual information for other parties to evaluate the merits of that claim,
including, if necessary, a privilege log.
(2) It is the intent of the Legislature to codify the concept of a privilege log as that term is used
in California case law. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to constitute a substantive change in case law.


2031.250. (a) The party to whom the demand for inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling is directed shall sign the response under oath
unless the response contains only objections.
(b) If that party is a public or private corporation or a
partnership or association or governmental agency, one of its
officers or agents shall sign the response under oath on behalf of
that party. If the officer or agent signing the response on behalf of
that party is an attorney acting in that capacity for a party, that
party waives any lawyer-client privilege and any protection for work
product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010) during any
subsequent discovery from that attorney concerning the identity of
the sources of the information contained in the response.
(c) The attorney for the responding party shall sign any responses
that contain an objection.



2031.260. (a) Within 30 days after service of a demand for
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling, the party to whom the
demand is directed shall serve the original of the response to it on
the party making the demand, and a copy of the response on all other
parties who have appeared in the action, unless on motion of the
party making the demand, the court has shortened the time for
response, or unless on motion of the party to whom the demand has
been directed, the court has extended the time for response.
(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), in an unlawful detainer
action or other proceeding under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section
1159) of Title 3 of Part 3, the party to whom a demand for
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling is directed shall have at
least five days from the date of service of the demand to respond,
unless on motion of the party making the demand, the court has
shortened the time for the response, or unless on motion of the party
to whom the demand has been directed, the court has extended the
time for response.



2031.270. (a) The party demanding inspection, copying, testing, or
sampling and the responding party may agree to extend the date for
the inspection, copying, testing, or sampling or the time for service
of a response to a set of demands, or to particular items or
categories of items in a set, to a date or dates beyond those
provided in Sections 2031.030, 2031.210, 2031.260, and 2031.280.
(b) This agreement may be informal, but it shall be confirmed in a
writing that specifies the extended date for inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling, or for the service of a response.
(c) Unless this agreement expressly states otherwise, it is
effective to preserve to the responding party the right to respond to
any item or category of item in the demand to which the agreement
applies in any manner specified in Sections 2031.210, 2031.220,
2031.230, 2031.240, and 2031.280.




2031.280. (a) Any documents produced in response to a demand for
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling shall either be produced as
they are kept in the usual course of business, or be organized and
labeled to correspond with the categories in the demand.
(b) The documents shall be produced on the date specified in the
demand pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (c) of Section
2031.030, unless an objection has been made to that date. If the date
for inspection has been extended pursuant to Section 2031.270, the
documents shall be produced on the date agreed to pursuant to that
section.
(c) If a party responding to a demand for production of
electronically stored information objects to a specified form for
producing the information, or if no form is specified in the demand,
the responding party shall state in its response the form in which it
intends to produce each type of information.
(d) Unless the parties otherwise agree or the court otherwise
orders, the following shall apply:
(1) If a demand for production does not specify a form or forms
for producing a type of electronically stored information, the
responding party shall produce the information in the form or forms
in which it is ordinarily maintained or in a form that is reasonably
usable.
(2) A party need not produce the same electronically stored
information in more than one form.
(e) If necessary, the responding party at the reasonable expense
of the demanding party shall, through detection devices, translate
any data compilations included in the demand into reasonably usable
form.


2031.285. (a) If electronically stored information produced in
discovery is subject to a claim of privilege or of protection as
attorney work product, the party making the claim may notify any
party that received the information of the claim and the basis for
the claim.
(b) After being notified of a claim of privilege or of protection
under subdivision (a), a party that received the information shall
immediately sequester the information and either return the specified
information and any copies that may exist or present the information
to the court conditionally under seal for a determination of the
claim.
(c) (1) Prior to the resolution of the motion brought under
subdivision (d), a party shall be precluded from using or disclosing
the specified information until the claim of privilege is resolved.
(2) A party who received and disclosed the information before
being notified of a claim of privilege or of protection under
subdivision (a) shall, after that notification, immediately take
reasonable steps to retrieve the information.
(d) (1) If the receiving party contests the legitimacy of a claim
of privilege or protection, he or she may seek a determination of the
claim from the court by making a motion within 30 days of receiving
the claim and presenting the information to the court conditionally
under seal.
(2) Until the legitimacy of the claim of privilege or protection
is resolved, the receiving party shall preserve the information and
keep it confidential and shall be precluded from using the
information in any manner.



2031.290. (a) The demand for inspection, copying, testing, or
sampling, and the response to it, shall not be filed with the court.
(b) The party demanding an inspection, copying, testing, or
sampling shall retain both the original of the demand, with the
original proof of service affixed to it, and the original of the
sworn response until six months after final disposition of the
action. At that time, both originals may be destroyed, unless the
court, on motion of any party and for good cause shown, orders that
the originals be preserved for a longer period.




2031.300. If a party to whom a demand for inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling is directed fails to serve a timely response to
it, the following rules shall apply:
(a) The party to whom the demand for inspection, copying, testing,
or sampling is directed waives any objection to the demand,
including one based on privilege or on the protection for work
product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010). The
court, on motion, may relieve that party from this waiver on its
determination that both of the following conditions are satisfied:
(1) The party has subsequently served a response that is in
substantial compliance with Sections 2031.210, 2031.220, 2031.230,
2031.240, and 2031.280.
(2) The party's failure to serve a timely response was the result
of mistake, inadvertence, or excusable neglect.
(b) The party making the demand may move for an order compelling
response to the demand.
(c) Except as provided in subdivision (d), the court shall impose
a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section
2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully
makes or opposes a motion to compel a response to a demand for
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling, unless it finds that the
one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or
that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.
If a party then fails to obey the order compelling a response, the
court may make those orders that are just, including the imposition
of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction
under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010). In lieu of or in
addition to this sanction, the court may impose a monetary sanction
under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010).
(d) (1) Notwithstanding subdivision (c), absent exceptional
circumstances, the court shall not impose sanctions on a party or any
attorney of a party for failure to provide electronically stored
information that has been lost, damaged, altered, or overwritten as a
result of the routine, good faith operation of an electronic
information system.
(2) This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any
obligation to preserve discoverable information.




2031.310. (a) On receipt of a response to a demand for inspection,
copying, testing, or sampling, the demanding party may move for an
order compelling further response to the demand if the demanding
party deems that any of the following apply:
(1) A statement of compliance with the demand is incomplete.
(2) A representation of inability to comply is inadequate,
incomplete, or evasive.
(3) An objection in the response is without merit or too general.
(b) A motion under subdivision (a) shall comply with both of the
following:
(1) The motion shall set forth specific facts showing good cause
justifying the discovery sought by the demand.
(2) The motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer
declaration under Section 2016.040.
(c) Unless notice of this motion is given within 45 days of the
service of the response, or any supplemental response, or on or
before any specific later date to which the demanding party and the
responding party have agreed in writing, the demanding party waives
any right to compel a further response to the demand.
(d) In a motion under subdivision (a) relating to the production
of electronically stored information, the party or affected person
objecting to or opposing the production, inspection, copying,
testing, or sampling of electronically stored information on the
basis that the information is from a source that is not reasonably
accessible because of the undue burden or expense shall bear the
burden of demonstrating that the information is from a source that is
not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or expense.
(e) If the party or affected person from whom discovery of
electronically stored information is sought establishes that the
information is from a source that is not reasonably accessible
because of the undue burden or expense, the court may nonetheless
order discovery if the demanding party shows good cause, subject to
any limitations imposed under subdivision (g).
(f) If the court finds good cause for the production of
electronically stored information from a source that is not
reasonably accessible, the court may set conditions for the discovery
of the electronically stored information, including allocation of
the expense of discovery.
(g) The court shall limit the frequency or extent of discovery of
electronically stored information, even from a source that is
reasonably accessible, if the court determines that any of the
following conditions exists:
(1) It is possible to obtain the information from some other
source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive.
(2) The discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or
duplicative.
(3) The party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity by
discovery in the action to obtain the information sought.
(4) The likely burden or expense of the proposed discovery
outweighs the likely benefit, taking into account the amount in
controversy, the resources of the parties, the importance of the
issues in the litigation, and the importance of the requested
discovery in resolving the issues.
(h) Except as provided in subdivision (j), the court shall impose
a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section
2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully
makes or opposes a motion to compel further response to a demand,
unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with
substantial justification or that other circumstances make the
imposition of the sanction unjust.
(i) Except as provided in subdivision (j), if a party fails to
obey an order compelling further response, the court may make those
orders that are just, including the imposition of an issue sanction,
an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction under Chapter 7
(commencing with Section 2023.010). In lieu of or in addition to that
sanction, the court may impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7
(commencing with Section 2023.010).
(j) (1) Notwithstanding subdivisions (h) and (i), absent
exceptional circumstances, the court shall not impose sanctions on a
party or any attorney of a party for failure to provide
electronically stored information that has been lost, damaged,
altered, or overwritten as the result of the routine, good faith
operation of an electronic information system.
(2) This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any
obligation to preserve discoverable information.




2031.320. (a) If a party filing a response to a demand for
inspection, copying, testing, or sampling under Sections 2031.210,
2031.220, 2031.230, 2031.240, and 2031.280 thereafter fails to permit
the inspection, copying, testing, or sampling in accordance with
that party's statement of compliance, the demanding party may move
for an order compelling compliance.
(b) Except as provided in subdivision (d), the court shall impose
a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section
2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully
makes or opposes a motion to compel compliance with a demand, unless
it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial
justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the
sanction unjust.
(c) Except as provided in subdivision (d), if a party then fails
to obey an order compelling inspection, copying, testing, or
sampling, the court may make those orders that are just, including
the imposition of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a
terminating sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section
2023.010). In lieu of or in addition to that sanction, the court may
impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section
2023.010).
(d) (1) Notwithstanding subdivisions (b) and (c), absent
exceptional circumstances, the court shall not impose sanctions on a
party or any attorney of a party for failure to provide
electronically stored information that has been lost, damaged,
altered, or overwritten as the result of the routine, good faith
operation of an electronic information system.

(2) This subdivision shall not be construed to alter any
obligation to preserve discoverable information.


2031.510.  (a) In any action, regardless of who is the moving party,
where the boundary of land patented or otherwise granted by the
state is in dispute, or the validity of any state patent or grant
dated before 1950 is in dispute, all parties shall have the duty to
disclose to all opposing parties all nonprivileged relevant written
evidence then known and available, including evidence against
interest, relating to the above issues.
(b) This evidence shall be disclosed within 120 days after the
filing with the court of proof of service upon all named defendants.
Thereafter, the parties shall have the continuing duty to make all
subsequently discovered relevant and nonprivileged written evidence
available to the opposing parties.

 
MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS

§ 2032.010. exemption of some actions
§ 2032.020. Physical or mental condition "in controversy in action";
exam only by specified licensed persons
DEMAND ONE PHYSICAL EXAM OF PERSONAL INJURY PLAINTIFF
§ 2032.210. “Plaintiff” and “defendant” defined
§ 2032.220. Demand one exam: distance & tests limited; timing & content
§ 2032.230. Response 20 days: comply, modify, object
§ 2032.240. Untimely response waives objection; relief; motion to compel
§ 2032.250. Motion to compel over response
§ 2032.260. Retention of originals
MOTION FOR OTHER PHYSICAL OR MENTAL EXAM
§ 2032.310. Motion specifies details of exam & examiner
§ 2032.320. Order: show good cause / exceptional circumstance;
specifics re exam & examiner; costs & good cause if > 75miles
COMPLIANCE & CONDUCT
§ 2032.410. Sanctions for failure to submit
§ 2032.420. Sanctions for failure to produce another
§ 2032.510. Observation of physical exam by attorney or rep;
suspension of exam to seek protective order
§ 2032.520. Duplicative X-rays limited
§ 2032.530. Right to Audio Record mental exam
§ 2032.610. Examinee option to demand detailed written report
§ 2032.620. Motion to compel production
§ 2032.630. Waiver of privileges & work product if obtain report or depo
§ 2032.640. Demanding examinee must produce existing reports
§ 2032.650. Motion to compel reciprocal repor



2032 .010. (a) Nothing in this chapter affects tests under the Uniform Act on Blood Tests to Determine Paternity (Chapter 2 (commencing with Section 7550) of Part 2 of Division 12 of the Family Code). (b) Nothing in this chapter requires the disclosure of the identity of an expert consulted by an attorney in order to make the certification required in an action for professional negligence under Sections 411.30 and 411.35.

 

2032 .020. (a) Any party may obtain discovery, subject to the restrictions set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 2019.010), by means of a physical or mental examination of

(1) a party to the action,
(2) an agent of any party, or
(3) a natural person in the custody or under the legal control of a party, in any action in which the mental or physical condition (including the blood group) of that party or other person is in controversy in the action.

(b) A physical examination conducted under this chapter shall be performed only by a licensed physician or other appropriate licensed health care practitioner.

(c) A mental examination conducted under this chapter shall be performed only by a licensed physician, or by a licensed clinical psychologist who holds a doctoral degree in psychology and has had at least five years of postgraduate experience in the diagnosis of emotional and mental disorders.

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Med Exam Contents

2032 .210. As used in this article, "plaintiff" includes a cross-complainant, and "defendant" includes a cross-defendant.

2032 .220. (a) In any case in which a plaintiff is seeking recovery for personal injuries, any defendant may demand one physical examination of the plaintiff, if both of the following conditions are satisfied:
(1) The examination does not include any diagnostic test or procedure that is painful, protracted, or intrusive.
(2) The examination is conducted at a location within 75 miles of the residence of the examinee.

(b) A defendant may make a demand under this article without leave of court after that defendant has been served or has appeared in the action, whichever occurs first.

(c) A demand under subdivision (a) shall specify the time, place, manner, conditions, scope, and nature of the examination, as well as the identity and the specialty, if any, of the physician who will perform the examination.

(d) A physical examination demanded under subdivision (a) shall be scheduled for a date that is at least 30 days after service of the demand. On motion of the party demanding the examination, the court may shorten this time.

(e) The defendant shall serve a copy of the demand under subdivision (a) on the plaintiff and on all other parties who have appeared in the action.

2032 .230. (a) The plaintiff to whom a demand for a physical examination under this article is directed shall respond to the demand by a written statement that the examinee will comply with the demand as stated, will comply with the demand as specifically modified by the plaintiff, or will refuse, for reasons specified in the response, to submit to the demanded physical examination.

(b) Within 20 days after service of the demand the plaintiff to whom the demand is directed shall serve the original of the response to it on the defendant making the demand, and a copy of the response on all other parties who have appeared in the action. On motion of the defendant making the demand, the court may shorten the time for response. On motion of the plaintiff to whom the demand is directed, the court may extend the time for response.

2032 .240. (a) If a plaintiff to whom a demand for a physical examination under this article is directed fails to serve a timely response to it, that plaintiff waives any objection to the demand. The court, on motion, may relieve that plaintiff from this waiver on its determination that both of the following conditions are satisfied:
(1) The plaintiff has subsequently served a response that is in substantial compliance with Section 2032 .230.
(2) The plaintiff's failure to serve a timely response was the result of mistake, inadvertence, or excusable neglect.

(b) The defendant may move for an order compelling response and compliance with a demand for a physical examination.

(c) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to compel response and compliance with a demand for a physical examination, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

(d) If a plaintiff then fails to obey the order compelling response and compliance, the court may make those orders that are just, including the imposition of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010). In lieu of or in addition to that sanction the court may impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010).

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2032 .250. (a) If a defendant who has demanded a physical examination under this article, on receipt of the plaintiff's response to that demand, deems that any modification of the demand, or any refusal to submit to the physical examination is unwarranted, that defendant may move for an order compelling compliance with the demand. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(b) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to compel compliance with a demand for a physical examination, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

2032 .260. (a) The demand for a physical examination under this article and the response to it shall not be filed with the court.

(b) The defendant shall retain both the original of the demand, with the original proof of service affixed to it, and the original response until six months after final disposition of the action. At that time, the original may be destroyed, unless the court, on motion of any party and for good cause shown, orders that the originals be preserved for a longer period.

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2032.310 . (a) If any party desires to obtain discovery by a physical examination other than that described in Article 2 (commencing with Section 2032 .210), or by a mental examination, the party shall obtain leave of court.

(b) A motion for an examination under subdivision (a) shall specify the time, place, manner, conditions, scope, and nature of the examination, as well as the identity and the specialty, if any, of the person or persons who will perform the examination. The motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(c) Notice of the motion shall be served on the person to be examined and on all parties who have appeared in the action.

2032.320. (a) The court shall grant a motion for a physical or mental examination under Section 2032.310 only for good cause shown.

(b) If a party stipulates as provided in subdivision (c), the court shall not order a mental examination of a person for whose personal injuries a recovery is being sought except on a showing of exceptional circumstances.

(c) A stipulation by a party under this subdivision shall include both of the following:
(1) A stipulation that no claim is being made for mental and emotional distress over and above that usually associated with the physical injuries claimed.
(2) A stipulation that no expert testimony regarding this usual mental and emotional distress will be presented at trial in support of the claim for damages.

(d) An order granting a physical or mental examination shall specify the person or persons who may perform the examination, as well as the time, place, manner, diagnostic tests and procedures, conditions, scope, and nature of the examination.

(e) If the place of the examination is more than 75 miles from the residence of the person to be examined, an order to submit to it shall be entered only if both of the following conditions are satisfied:
(1) The court determines that there is good cause for the travel involved.
(2) The order is conditioned on the advancement by the moving party of the reasonable expenses and costs to the examinee for travel to the place of examination.

2032 .410. If a party is required to submit to a physical or mental examination under Articles 2 (commencing with Section 2032 .210) or 3 (commencing with Section 2032 . 310 ), or under Section 2016.030, but fails to do so, the court, on motion of the party entitled to the examination, may make those orders that are just, including the imposition of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010). In lieu of or in addition to that sanction, the court may, on motion of the party, impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010).

 

2032 .420. If a party is required to produce another for a physical or mental examination under Articles 2 (commencing with Section 2032 .210) or 3 (commencing with Section 2032 . 310 ), or under Section 2032 .030, but fails to do so, the court, on motion of the party entitled to the examination, may make those orders that are just, including the imposition of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010), unless the party failing to comply demonstrates an inability to produce that person for examination. In lieu of or in addition to that sanction, the court may impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010).

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 Med Exam Contents          DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

2032 .510. (a) The attorney for the examinee or for a party producing the examinee, or that attorney's representative, shall be permitted to attend and observe any physical examination conducted for discovery purposes, and to record stenographically or by by audio technology any words spoken to or by the examinee during any phase of the examination.

(b) The observer under subdivision (a) may monitor the examination, but shall not participate in or disrupt it.

(c) If an attorney's representative is to serve as the observer, the representative shall be authorized to so act by a writing subscribed by the attorney which identifies the representative.

(d) If in the judgment of the observer the examiner becomes abusive to the examinee or undertakes to engage in unauthorized diagnostic tests and procedures, the observer may suspend it to enable the party being examined or producing the examinee to make a motion for a protective order.

(e) If the observer begins to participate in or disrupt the examination, the person conducting the physical examination may suspend the examination to enable the party at whose instance it is being conducted to move for a protective order.

(f) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion for a protective order under this section, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

 

2032 .520. If an examinee submits or authorizes access to X-rays of any area of his or her body for inspection by the examining physician, no additional X-rays of that area may be taken by the examining physician except with consent of the examinee or on order of the court for good cause shown.

 Med Exam Contents          DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

2032 .530. (a) The examiner and examinee shall have the right to record a mental examination by audio technology.

(b) Nothing in this title shall be construed to alter, amend, or affect existing case law with respect to the presence of the attorney for the examinee or other persons during the examination by agreement or court order.

 

2032 .610. (a) If a party submits to, or produces another for, a physical or mental examination in compliance with a demand under Article 2 (commencing with Section 2032 .210), an order of court under Article 3 (commencing with Section 2032 . 310 ), or an agreement under Section 2016.030, that party has the option of making a written demand that the party at whose instance the examination was made deliver both of the following to the demanding party:
(1) A copy of a detailed written report setting out the history, examinations, findings, including the results of all tests made, diagnoses, prognoses, and conclusions of the examiner.
(2) A copy of reports of all earlier examinations of the same condition of the examinee made by that or any other examiner.

(b) If the option under subdivision (a) is exercised, a copy of the requested reports shall be delivered within 30 days after service of the demand, or within 15 days of trial, whichever is earlier.

(c) In the circumstances described in subdivision (a), the protection for work product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010) is waived, both for the examiner 's writings and reports and to the taking of the examiner's testimony.

 

2032 .620. (a) If the party at whose instance an examination was made fails to make a timely delivery of the reports demanded under Section 2032 .610, the demanding party may move for an order compelling their delivery. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(b) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to compel delivery of medical reports under this section, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

(c) If a party then fails to obey an order compelling delivery of demanded medical reports, the court may make those orders that are just, including the imposition of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010). In lieu of or in addition to those sanctions, the court may impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010). The court shall exclude at trial the testimony of any examiner whose report has not been provided by a party.

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2032 .630. By demanding and obtaining a report of a physical or mental examination under Section 2032 .610 or 2032 .620, or by taking the deposition of the examiner, other than under Article 3 (commencing with Section 2034.410) of Chapter 18, the party who submitted to, or produced another for, a physical or mental examination waives in the pending action, and in any other action involving the same controversy, any privilege, as well as any protection for work product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010), that the party or other examinee may have regarding reports and writings as well as the testimony of every other physician, psychologist, or licensed health care practitioner who has examined or may thereafter examine the party or other examinee in respect of the same physical or mental condition.

 

2032 .640. A party receiving a demand for a report under Section 2032 .610 is entitled at the time of compliance to receive in exchange a copy of any existing written report of any examination of the same condition by any other physician, psychologist, or licensed health care practitioner. In addition, that party is entitled to receive promptly any later report of any previous or subsequent examination of the same condition, by any physician, psychologist, or licensed health care practitioner.

 

2032 .650. (a) If a party who has demanded and received delivery of medical reports under Section 2032 .610 fails to deliver existing or later reports of previous or subsequent examinations under Section 2032 .640, a party who has complied with Section 2032 .610 may move for an order compelling delivery of medical reports. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(b) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to compel delivery of medical reports under this section, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

(c) If a party then fails to obey an order compelling delivery of medical reports, the court may make those orders that are just, including the imposition of an issue sanction, an evidence sanction, or a terminating sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010). In lieu of or in addition to the sanction, the court may impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010). The court shall exclude at trial the testimony of any health care practitioner whose report has not been provided by a party ordered to do so by the court.

 

REQUEST FOR ADMISSION
C.C.P. §2033

2033 .010. Any party may obtain discovery within the scope delimited by Chapters 2 (commencing with Section 2017.010) and 3 (commencing with Section 2017.710), and subject to the restrictions set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 2019.010), by a written request that any other party to the action admit the genuineness of specified documents, or the truth of specified matters of fact, opinion relating to fact, or application of law to fact. A request for admission may relate to a matter that is in controversy between the parties.

 2033 .020. (a) A defendant may make requests for admission by a party without leave of court at any time.

(b) A plaintiff may make requests for admission by a party without leave of court at any time that is 10 days after the service of the summons on, or, in unlawful detainer actions, five days after the service of the summons on, or appearance by, that party, whichever occurs first.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (b), on motion with or without notice, the court, for good cause shown, may grant leave to a plaintiff to make requests for admission at an earlier time.

 2033 .030. (a) No party shall request, as a matter of right, that any other party admit more than 35 matters that do not relate to the genuineness of documents. If the initial set of admission requests does not exhaust this limit, the balance may be requested in subsequent sets.

(b) Unless a declaration as described in Section 2033 .050 has been made, a party need only respond to the first 35 admission requests served that do not relate to the genuineness of documents, if that party states an objection to the balance under Section 2033 .230 on the ground that the limit has been exceeded.

(c) The number of requests for admission of the genuineness of documents is not limited except as justice requires to protect the responding party from unwarranted annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden and expense.

 
2033 .040. (a) Subject to the right of the responding party to seek a protective order under Section 2033 .080, any party who attaches a supporting declaration as described in Section 2033 .050 may request a greater number of admissions by another party if the greater number is warranted by the complexity or the quantity of the existing and potential issues in the particular case.

(b) If the responding party seeks a protective order on the ground that the number of requests for admission is unwarranted, the propounding party shall have the burden of justifying the number of requests for admission.

Admission Contents                 DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 
2033 .050. Any party who is requesting or who has already requested more than 35 admissions not relating to the genuineness of documents by any other party shall attach to each set of requests for admissions a declaration containing substantially the following words:

DECLARATION FOR ADDITIONAL DISCOVERY

I, __________, declare: 1. I am (a party to this action or proceeding appearing in propria persona) (presently the attorney for __________, a party to this action or proceeding). 2. I am propounding to __________ the attached set of requests for admission. 3. This set of requests for admission will cause the total number of requests propounded to the party to whom they are directed to exceed the number of requests permitted by Section 2033 .030 of the Code of Civil Procedure . 4. I have previously propounded a total of __________ requests for admission to this party. 5. This set of requests for admission contains a total of __________ requests. 6. I am familiar with the issues and the previous discovery conducted by all of the parties in this case. 7. I have personally examined each of the requests in this set of requests for admission. 8. This number of requests for admission is warranted under Section 2033 .040 of the Code of Civil Procedure because __________. (Here state the reasons why the complexity or the quantity of issues in the instant lawsuit warrant this number of requests for admission.) 9. None of the requests in this set of requests is being propounded for any improper purpose, such as to harass the party, or the attorney for the party, to whom it is directed, or to cause unnecessary delay or needless increase in the cost of litigation. I declare under penalty of perjury under the laws of California that the foregoing is true and correct, and that this declaration was executed on __________.

___________________________________________ (Signature)

Attorney for ______________________________
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  2033 .060. (a) A party requesting admissions shall number each set of requests consecutively.

(b) In the first paragraph immediately below the title of the case, there shall appear the identity of the party requesting the admissions, the set number, and the identity of the responding party.

(c) Each request for admission in a set shall be separately set forth and identified by letter or number.

(d) Each request for admission shall be full and complete in and of itself. No preface or instruction shall be included with a set of admission requests unless it has been approved under Chapter 17 (commencing with Section 2033 .710).

(e) Any term specially defined in a request for admission shall be typed with all letters capitalized whenever the term appears.

(f) No request for admission shall contain subparts, or a compound, conjunctive, or disjunctive request unless it has been approved under Chapter 17 (commencing with Section 2033 .710).

(g) A party requesting an admission of the genuineness of any documents shall attach copies of those documents to the requests, and shall make the original of those documents available for inspection on demand by the party to whom the requests for admission are directed.

(h) No party shall combine in a single document requests for admission with any other method of discovery.

 2033 .070. The party requesting admissions shall serve a copy of them on the party to whom they are directed and on all other parties who have appeared in the action.

Admission Contents                 DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 2033 .080. (a) When requests for admission have been made, the responding party may promptly move for a protective order. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(b) The court, for good cause shown, may make any order that justice requires to protect any party from unwarranted annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden and expense. This protective order may include, but is not limited to, one or more of the following directions:
(1) That the set of admission requests, or particular requests in the set, need not be answered at all.
(2) That, contrary to the representations made in a declaration submitted under Section 2033 .050, the number of admission requests is unwarranted.
(3) That the time specified in Section 2033 .250 to respond to the set of admission requests, or to particular requests in the set, be extended.
(4) That a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information not be admitted or be admitted only in a certain way.
(5) That some or all of the answers to requests for admission be sealed and thereafter opened only on order of the court.

(c) If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in part, the court may order that the responding party provide or permit the discovery against which protection was sought on terms and conditions that are just.

(d) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion for a protective order under this section, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

 
2033 .210. (a) The party to whom requests for admission have been directed shall respond in writing under oath separately to each request.

(b) Each response shall answer the substance of the requested admission, or set forth an objection to the particular request.

(c) In the first paragraph of the response immediately below the title of the case, there shall appear the identity of the responding party, the set number, and the identity of the requesting party.

(d) Each answer or objection in the response shall bear the same identifying number or letter and be in the same sequence as the corresponding request, but the text of the particular request need not be repeated.                                      top of page

 2033 .220. (a) Each answer in a response to requests for admission shall be as complete and straightforward as the information reasonably available to the responding party permits.

(b) Each answer shall:
(1) Admit so much of the matter involved in the request as is true, either as expressed in the request itself or as reasonably and clearly qualified by the responding party.
(2) Deny so much of the matter involved in the request as is untrue.
(3) Specify so much of the matter involved in the request as to the truth of which the responding party lacks sufficient information or knowledge.

(c) If a responding party gives lack of information or knowledge as a reason for a failure to admit all or part of a request for admission, that party shall state in the answer that a reasonable inquiry concerning the matter in the particular request has been made, and that the information known or readily obtainable is insufficient to enable that party to admit the matter.

 2033 .230. (a) If only a part of a request for admission is objectionable, the remainder of the request shall be answered.

(b) If an objection is made to a request or to a part of a request, the specific ground for the objection shall be set forth clearly in the response. If an objection is based on a claim of privilege, the particular privilege invoked shall be clearly stated. If an objection is based on a claim that the matter as to which an admission is requested is protected work product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010), that claim shall be expressly asserted.

Admission Contents                 DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 2033 .240. (a) The party to whom the requests for admission are directed shall sign the response under oath, unless the response contains only objections.

(b) If that party is a public or private corporation, or a partnership or association or governmental agency, one of its officers or agents shall sign the response under oath on behalf of that party. If the officer or agent signing the response on behalf of that party is an attorney acting in that capacity for the party, that party waives any lawyer-client privilege and any protection for work product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010) during any subsequent discovery from that attorney concerning the identity of the sources of the information contained in the response.

(c) The attorney for the responding party shall sign any response that contains an objection.

 
2033 .250. Within 30 days after service of requests for admission, or in unlawful detainer actions within five days after service of requests for admission, the party to whom the requests are directed shall serve the original of the response to them on the requesting party, and a copy of the response on all other parties who have appeared, unless on motion of the requesting party the court has shortened the time for response, or unless on motion of the responding party the court has extended the time for response. In unlawful detainer actions, the party to whom the request is directed shall have at least five days from the date of service to respond unless on motion of the requesting party the court has shortened the time for response.

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2033 .260. (a) The party requesting admissions and the responding party may agree to extend the time for service of a response to a set of admission requests, or to particular requests in a set, to a date beyond that provided in Section 2033 .250.

(b) This agreement may be informal, but it shall be confirmed in a writing that specifies the extended date for service of a response.

(c) Unless this agreement expressly states otherwise, it is effective to preserve to the responding party the right to respond to any request for admission to which the agreement applies in any manner specified in Sections 2033 .210, 2033 .220, and 2033 .230.

(d) Notice of this agreement shall be given by the responding party to all other parties who were served with a copy of the request.

 
2033 .270. (a) The requests for admission and the response to them shall not be filed with the court.

(b) The party requesting admissions shall retain both the original of the requests for admission, with the original proof of service affixed to them, and the original of the sworn response until six months after final disposition of the action. At that time, both originals may be destroyed, unless the court, on motion of any party and for good cause shown, orders that the originals be preserved for a longer period.

Admission Contents                 DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 
2033 .280. If a party to whom requests for admission are directed fails to serve a timely response, the following rules apply: (a) The party to whom the requests for admission are directed waives any objection to the requests, including one based on privilege or on the protection for work product under Chapter 4 (commencing with Section 2018.010). The court, on motion, may relieve that party from this waiver on its determination that both of the following conditions are satisfied:
(1) The party has subsequently served a response that is in substantial compliance with Sections 2033 .210, 2033 .220, and 2033 .230.
(2) The party's failure to serve a timely response was the result of mistake, inadvertence, or excusable neglect.

(b) The requesting party may move for an order that the genuineness of any documents and the truth of any matters specified in the requests be deemed admitted, as well as for a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010).

(c) The court shall make this order, unless it finds that the party to whom the requests for admission have been directed has served, before the hearing on the motion, a proposed response to the requests for admission that is in substantial compliance with Section 2033.220. It is mandatory that the court impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) on the party or attorney, or both, whose failure to serve a timely response to requests for admission necessitated this motion.

 
2033 .290. (a) On receipt of a response to requests for admissions, the party requesting admissions may move for an order compelling a further response if that party deems that either or both of the following apply: (1) An answer to a particular request is evasive or incomplete. (2) An objection to a particular request is without merit or too general.

(b) A motion under subdivision (a) shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(c) Unless notice of this motion is given within 45 days of the service of the response, or any supplemental response, or any specific later date to which the requesting party and the responding party have agreed in writing, the requesting party waives any right to compel further response to the requests for admission.

(d) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to compel further response, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

(e) If a party then fails to obey an order compelling further response to requests for admission, the court may order that the matters involved in the requests be deemed admitted. In lieu of or in addition to this order, the court may impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010).                                                                                   top of page

 Admission Contents                 DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

2033 .300. (a) A party may withdraw or amend an admission made in response to a request for admission only on leave of court granted after notice to all parties.

(b) The court may permit withdrawal or amendment of an admission only if it determines that the admission was the result of mistake, inadvertence, or excusable neglect, and that the party who obtained the admission will not be substantially prejudiced in maintaining that party's action or defense on the merits.

(c) The court may impose conditions on the granting of the motion that are just, including, but not limited to, the following:
(1) An order that the party who obtained the admission be permitted to pursue additional discovery related to the matter involved in the withdrawn or amended admission.
(2) An order that the costs of any additional discovery be borne in whole or in part by the party withdrawing or amending the admission.

2033 . 410 . (a) Any matter admitted in response to a request for admission is conclusively established against the party making the admission in the pending action, unless the court has permitted withdrawal or amendment of that admission under Section 2033 .300.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), any admission made by a party under this section is binding only on that party and is made for the purpose of the pending action only. It is not an admission by that party for any other purpose, and it shall not be used in any manner against that party in any other proceeding.

Admission Contents                 DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

2033 .420. (a) If a party fails to admit the genuineness of any document or the truth of any matter when requested to do so under this chapter, and if the party requesting that admission thereafter proves the genuineness of that document or the truth of that matter, the party requesting the admission may move the court for an order requiring the party to whom the request was directed to pay the reasonable expenses incurred in making that proof, including reasonable attorney's fees.

(b) The court shall make this order unless it finds any of the following:

(1) An objection to the request was sustained or a response to it was waived under Section 2033 .290.
(2) The admission sought was of no substantial importance.
(3) The party failing to make the admission had reasonable ground to believe that that party would prevail on the matter.
(4) There was other good reason for the failure to admit.

2033 .710. The Judicial Council shall develop and approve official form interrogatories and requests for admission of the genuineness of any relevant documents or of the truth of any relevant matters of fact for use in any civil action in a state court based on personal injury, property damage, wrongful death, unlawful detainer, breach of contract, family law, or fraud and for any other civil actions the Judicial Council deems appropriate.

 
2033 .720. (a) The Judicial Council shall develop and approve official form interrogatories for use by a victim who has not received complete payment of a restitution order made pursuant to Section 1202.4 of the Penal Code.

(b) Notwithstanding whether a victim initiates or maintains an action to satisfy the unpaid restitution order, a victim may propound the form interrogatories approved pursuant to this section once each calendar year. The defendant subject to the restitution order shall, in responding to the interrogatories propounded, provide current information regarding the nature, extent, and location of any assets, income, and liabilities in which the defendant claims a present or future interest.                                                                   top of page

 
2033 .730. (a) In developing the form interrogatories and requests for admission required by Sections 2033 .710 and 2033 .720, the Judicial Council shall consult with a representative advisory committee which shall include, but not be limited to, representatives of all of the following: (1) The plaintiff's bar. (2) The defense bar. (3) The public interest bar. (4) Court administrators. (5) The public.

(b) The form interrogatories and requests for admission shall be drafted in nontechnical language.

 
2033 .740. (a) Use of the form interrogatories and requests for admission approved by the Judicial Council shall be optional.

(b) The form interrogatories and requests for admission shall be made available through the office of the clerk of the appropriate trial court.

(c) The Judicial Council shall promulgate any necessary rules to govern the use of the form interrogatories and requests for admission.

Admission Contents                 DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

EXPERT WITNESS INFORMATION

 

2034 .010. This chapter does not apply to exchanges of lists of experts and valuation data in eminent domain proceedings under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 1258.010) of Title 7 of Part 3.

 

2034 .210. After the setting of the initial trial date for the action, any party may obtain discovery by demanding that all parties simultaneously exchange information concerning each other's expert trial witnesses to the following extent:

(a) Any party may demand a mutual and simultaneous exchange by all parties of a list containing the name and address of any natural person, including one who is a party, whose oral or deposition testimony in the form of an expert opinion any party expects to offer in evidence at the trial.

(b) If any expert designated by a party under subdivision (a) is a party or an employee of a party, or has been retained by a party for the purpose of forming and expressing an opinion in anticipation of the litigation or in preparation for the trial of the action, the designation of that witness shall include or be accompanied by an expert witness declaration under Section 2034 .260.

(c) Any party may also include a demand for the mutual and simultaneous production for inspection and copying of all discoverable reports and writings, if any, made by any expert described in subdivision (b) in the course of preparing that expert's opinion.

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2034 .220. Any party may make a demand for an exchange of information concerning expert trial witnesses without leave of court. A party shall make this demand no later than the 10th day after the initial trial date has been set, or 70 days before that trial date, whichever is closer to the trial date.

 

2034 .230. (a) A demand for an exchange of information concerning expert trial witnesses shall be in writing and shall identify, below the title of the case, the party making the demand. The demand shall state that it is being made under this chapter.

(b) The demand shall specify the date for the exchange of lists of expert trial witnesses, expert witness declarations, and any demanded production of writings. The specified date of exchange shall be 50 days before the initial trial date, or 20 days after service of the demand, whichever is closer to the trial date, unless the court, on motion and a showing of good cause, orders an earlier or later date of exchange.

 

2034 .240. The party demanding an exchange of information concerning expert trial witnesses shall serve the demand on all parties who have appeared in the action.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

2034 .250. (a) A party who has been served with a demand to exchange information concerning expert trial witnesses may promptly move for a protective order. This motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

(b) The court, for good cause shown, may make any order that justice requires to protect any party from unwarranted annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, or undue burden and expense. The protective order may include, but is not limited to, one or more of the following directions:
(1) That the demand be quashed because it was not timely served.
(2) That the date of exchange be earlier or later than that specified in the demand.
(3) That the exchange be made only on specified terms and conditions.
(4) That the production and exchange of any reports and writings of experts be made at a different place or at a different time than specified in the demand.
(5) That some or all of the parties be divided into sides on the basis of their identity of interest in the issues in the action, and that the designation of any experts as described in subdivision (b) of Section 2034 .210 be made by any side so created.
(6) That a party or a side reduce the list of employed or retained experts designated by that party or side under subdivision (b) of Section 2034 .210.

(c) If the motion for a protective order is denied in whole or in part, the court may order that the parties against whom the motion is brought, provide or permit the discovery against which the protection was sought on those terms and conditions that are just.

(d) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion for a protective order under this section, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

 

2034 .260. (a) All parties who have appeared in the action shall exchange information concerning expert witnesses in writing on or before the date of exchange specified in the demand. The exchange of information may occur at a meeting of the attorneys for the parties involved or by a mailing on or before the date of exchange.

(b) The exchange of expert witness information shall include either of the following:
(1) A list setting forth the name and address of any person whose expert opinion that party expects to offer in evidence at the trial.
(2) A statement that the party does not presently intend to offer the testimony of any expert witness.

(c) If any witness on the list is an expert as described in subdivision (b) of Section 2034 .210, the exchange shall also include or be accompanied by an expert witness declaration signed only by the attorney for the party designating the expert, or by that party if that party has no attorney. This declaration shall be under penalty of perjury and shall contain:
(1) A brief narrative statement of the qualifications of each expert.
(2) A brief narrative statement of the general substance of the testimony that the expert is expected to give.
(3) A representation that the expert has agreed to testify at the trial.
(4) A representation that the expert will be sufficiently familiar with the pending action to submit to a meaningful oral deposition concerning the specific testimony, including any opinion and its basis, that the expert is expected to give at trial.
(5) A statement of the expert's hourly and daily fee for providing deposition testimony and for consulting with the retaining attorney.

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2034 .270. If a demand for an exchange of information concerning expert trial witnesses includes a demand for production of reports and writings as described in subdivision (c) of Section 2034 .210, all parties shall produce and exchange, at the place and on the date specified in the demand, all discoverable reports and writings, if any, made by any designated expert described in subdivision (b) of Section 2034 .210.

 

2034 .280. (a) Within 20 days after the exchange described in Section 2034 .260, any party who engaged in the exchange may submit a supplemental expert witness list containing the name and address of any experts who will express an opinion on a subject to be covered by an expert designated by an adverse party to the exchange, if the party supplementing an expert witness list has not previously retained an expert to testify on that subject.

(b) This supplemental list shall be accompanied by an expert witness declaration under subdivision (c) of Section 2034 .260 concerning those additional experts, and by all discoverable reports and writings, if any, made by those additional experts.

(c) The party shall also make those experts available immediately for a deposition under Article 3 (commencing with Section 2034 .410), which deposition may be taken even though the time limit for discovery under Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 2024.010) has expired.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

2034 .290. (a) A demand for an exchange of information concerning expert trial witnesses, and any expert witness lists and declarations exchanged shall not be filed with the court.

(b) The party demanding the exchange shall retain both the original of the demand, with the original proof of service affixed, and the original of all expert witness lists and declarations exchanged in response to the demand until six months after final disposition of the action. At that time, all originals may be destroyed unless the court, on motion of any party and for good cause shown, orders that the originals be preserved for a longer period.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivisions (a) and (b), a demand for exchange of information concerning expert trial witnesses, and all expert witness lists and declarations exchanged in response to it, shall be lodged with the court when their contents become relevant to an issue in any pending matter in the action.

 

2034 .300. Except as provided in Section 2034 .310 and in Articles 4 (commencing with Section 2034 .610) and 5 (commencing with Section 2034 .710), on objection of any party who has made a complete and timely compliance with Section 2034 .260, the trial court shall exclude from evidence the expert opinion of any witness that is offered by any party who has unreasonably failed to do any of the following:
(a) List that witness as an expert under Section 2034 .260.
(b) Submit an expert witness declaration.
(c) Produce reports and writings of expert witnesses under Section 2034 .270.
(d) Make that expert available for a deposition under Article 3 (commencing with Section 2034 .410).

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2034 .310. A party may call as a witness at trial an expert not previously designated by that party if either of the following conditions is satisfied:
(a) That expert has been designated by another party and has thereafter been deposed under Article 3 (commencing with Section 2034 .410).
(b) That expert is called as a witness to impeach the testimony of an expert witness offered by any other party at the trial. This impeachment may include testimony to the falsity or nonexistence of any fact used as the foundation for any opinion by any other party's expert witness, but may not include testimony that contradicts the opinion.

 

2034 .410. On receipt of an expert witness list from a party, any other party may take the deposition of any person on the list. The procedures for taking oral and written depositions set forth in Chapters 9 (commencing with Section 2025.010), 10 (commencing with Section 2026.010), and 11 (commencing with Section 2028.010) apply to a deposition of a listed trial expert witness except as provided in this article.

 

2034 .420. The deposition of any expert described in subdivision (b) of Section 2034 .260 shall be taken at a place that is within 75 miles of the courthouse where the action is pending. On motion for a protective order by the party designating an expert witness, and on a showing of exceptional hardship, the court may order that the deposition be taken at a more distant place from the courthouse.               top of page

 

2034 .430. (a) Except as provided in subdivision (f), this section applies to an expert witness, other than a party or an employee of a party, who is any of the following:
(1) An expert described in subdivision (b) of Section 2034 .260.
(2) A treating physician and surgeon or other treating health care practitioner who is to be asked during the deposition to express opinion testimony, including opinion or factual testimony regarding the past or present diagnosis or prognosis made by the practitioner or the reasons for a particular treatment decision made by the practitioner, but not including testimony requiring only the reading of words and symbols contained in the relevant medical record or, if those words and symbols are not legible to the deponent, the approximation by the deponent of what those words or symbols are.
(3) An architect, professional engineer, or licensed land surveyor who was involved with the original project design or survey for which that person is asked to express an opinion within the person's expertise and relevant to the action or proceeding.

(b) A party desiring to depose an expert witness described in subdivision (a) shall pay the expert's reasonable and customary hourly or daily fee for any time spent at the deposition from the time noticed in the deposition subpoena, or from the time of the arrival of the expert witness should that time be later than the time noticed in the deposition subpoena, until the time the expert witness is dismissed from the deposition, regardless of whether the expert is actually deposed by any party attending the deposition.

(c) If any counsel representing the expert or a nonnoticing party is late to the deposition, the expert's reasonable and customary hourly or daily fee for the time period determined from the time noticed in the deposition subpoena until the counsel's late arrival, shall be paid by that tardy counsel.

(d) Notwithstanding subdivision (c), the hourly or daily fee charged to the tardy counsel shall not exceed the fee charged to the party who retained the expert, except where the expert donated services to a charitable or other nonprofit organization.

(e) A daily fee shall only be charged for a full day of attendance at a deposition or where the expert was required by the deposing party to be available for a full day and the expert necessarily had to forego all business that the expert would otherwise have conducted that day but for the request that the expert be available all day for the scheduled deposition.

(f) In a worker's compensation case arising under Division 4 (commencing with Section 3201) or Division 4.5 (commencing with Section 6100) of the Labor Code, a party desiring to depose any expert on another party's expert witness list shall pay the fee under this section.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

2034 .440. The party designating an expert is responsible for any fee charged by the expert for preparing for a deposition and for traveling to the place of the deposition, as well as for any travel expenses of the expert.

 

2034 .450. (a) The party taking the deposition of an expert witness shall either accompany the service of the deposition notice with a tender of the expert's fee based on the anticipated length of the deposition, or tender that fee at the commencement of the deposition.

(b) The expert's fee shall be delivered to the attorney for the party designating the expert.

(c) If the deposition of the expert takes longer than anticipated, the party giving notice of the deposition shall pay the balance of the expert's fee within five days of receipt of an itemized statement from the expert.

 

2034 .460. (a) The service of a proper deposition notice accompanied by the tender of the expert witness fee described in Section 2034 .430 is effective to require the party employing or retaining the expert to produce the expert for the deposition.

(b) If the party noticing the deposition fails to tender the expert's fee under Section 2034 .430, the expert shall not be deposed at that time unless the parties stipulate otherwise.                                                                         top of page

 

2034 .470. (a) If a party desiring to take the deposition of an expert witness under this article deems that the hourly or daily fee of that expert for providing deposition testimony is unreasonable, that party may move for an order setting the compensation of that expert. Notice of this motion shall also be given to the expert.

(b) A motion under subdivision (a) shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040. In any attempt at an informal resolution under Section 2016.040, either the party or the expert shall provide the other with all of the following:
(1) Proof of the ordinary and customary fee actually charged and received by that expert for similar services provided outside the subject litigation.
(2) The total number of times the presently demanded fee has ever been charged and received by that expert.
(3) The frequency and regularity with which the presently demanded fee has been charged and received by that expert within the two-year period preceding the hearing on the motion.

(c) In addition to any other facts or evidence, the expert or the party designating the expert shall provide, and the court's determination as to the reasonableness of the fee shall be based on, proof of the ordinary and customary fee actually charged and received by that expert for similar services provided outside the subject litigation.

(d) In an action filed after January 1, 1994, the expert or the party designating the expert shall also provide, and the court's determination as to the reasonableness of the fee shall also be based on, both of the following:
(1) The total number of times the presently demanded fee has ever been charged and received by that expert.
(2) The frequency and regularity with which the presently demanded fee has been charged and received by that expert within the two-year period preceding the hearing on the motion.

(e) The court may also consider the ordinary and customary fees charged by similar experts for similar services within the relevant community and any other factors the court deems necessary or appropriate to make its determination.

(f) Upon a determination that the fee demanded by that expert is unreasonable, and based upon the evidence and factors considered, the court shall set the fee of the expert providing testimony.

(g) The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to set the expert witness fee, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

 DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

2034 . 610 . (a) On motion of any party who has engaged in a timely exchange of expert witness information, the court may grant leave to do either or both of the following:
(1) Augment that party's expert witness list and declaration by adding the name and address of any expert witness whom that party has subsequently retained.
(2) Amend that party's expert witness declaration with respect to the general substance of the testimony that an expert previously designated is expected to give.

(b) A motion under subdivision (a) shall be made at a sufficient time in advance of the time limit for the completion of discovery under Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 2024.010) to permit the deposition of any expert to whom the motion relates to be taken within that time limit. Under exceptional circumstances, the court may permit the motion to be made at a later time.

(c) The motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

 

2034 .620. The court shall grant leave to augment or amend an expert witness list or declaration only if all of the following conditions are satisfied:
(a) The court has taken into account the extent to which the opposing party has relied on the list of expert witnesses.

(b) The court has determined that any party opposing the motion will not be prejudiced in maintaining that party's action or defense on the merits.

(c) The court has determined either of the following:

(1) The moving party would not in the exercise of reasonable diligence have determined to call that expert witness or have decided to offer the different or additional testimony of that expert witness.

(2) The moving party failed to determine to call that expert witness, or to offer the different or additional testimony of that expert witness as a result of mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or excusable neglect,

and the moving party has done both of the following:
(A) Sought leave to augment or amend promptly after deciding to call the expert witness or to offer the different or additional testimony.
(B) Promptly thereafter served a copy of the proposed expert witness information concerning the expert or the testimony described in Section 2034 .260 on all other parties who have appeared in the action.


(d) Leave to augment or amend is conditioned on the moving party making the expert available immediately for a deposition under Article 3 (commencing with Section 2034 .410), and on any other terms as may be just, including, but not limited to, leave to any party opposing the motion to designate additional expert witnesses or to elicit additional opinions from those previously designated, a continuance of the trial for a reasonable period of time, and the awarding of costs and litigation expenses to any party opposing the motion.

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2034 .630. The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to augment or amend expert witness information, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

2034 .710. (a) On motion of any party who has failed to submit expert witness information on the date specified in a demand for that exchange, the court may grant leave to submit that information on a later date.

(b) A motion under subdivision (a) shall be made a sufficient time in advance of the time limit for the completion of discovery under Chapter 8 (commencing with Section 2024.010) to permit the deposition of any expert to whom the motion relates to be taken within that time limit. Under exceptional circumstances, the court may permit the motion to be made at a later time.

(c) The motion shall be accompanied by a meet and confer declaration under Section 2016.040.

 

2034 .720. The court shall grant leave to submit tardy expert witness information only if all of the following conditions are satisfied:

(a) The court has taken into account the extent to which the opposing party has relied on the absence of a list of expert witnesses.

(b) The court has determined that any party opposing the motion will not be prejudiced in maintaining that party's action or defense on the merits.

(c) The court has determined that the moving party did all of the following:
(1) Failed to submit the information as the result of mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or excusable neglect.
(2) Sought leave to submit the information promptly after learning of the mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or excusable neglect.
(3) Promptly thereafter served a copy of the proposed expert witness information described in Section 2034 .260 on all other parties who have appeared in the action.

(d) The order is conditioned on the moving party making the expert available immediately for a deposition under Article 3 (commencing with Section 2034 .410), and on any other terms as may be just, including, but not limited to, leave to any party opposing the motion to designate additional expert witnesses or to elicit additional opinions from those previously designated, a continuance of the trial for a reasonable period of time, and the awarding of costs and litigation expenses to any party opposing the motion.

 

2034 .730. The court shall impose a monetary sanction under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 2023.010) against any party, person, or attorney who unsuccessfully makes or opposes a motion to submit tardy expert witness information, unless it finds that the one subject to the sanction acted with substantial justification or that other circumstances make the imposition of the sanction unjust.

DISCOVERY ACT TABLE

 

PERPETUATION OF TESTIMONY
C.C.P.§2035
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2035 .010. (a) One who expects to be a party or expects a successor in interest to be a party to any action that may be cognizable in any court of the State of California, whether as a plaintiff, or as a defendant, or in any other capacity, may obtain discovery within the scope delimited by Chapters 2 (commencing with Section 2017.010) and 3 (commencing with Section 2017.710), and subject to the restrictions set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 2019.010), for the purpose of perpetuating that person's own testimony or that of another natural person or organization, or of preserving evidence for use in the event an action is subsequently filed.

(b) One shall not employ the procedures of this chapter for the purpose either of ascertaining the possible existence of a cause of action or a defense to it, or of identifying those who might be made parties to an action not yet filed.

 

2035 .020. The methods available for discovery conducted for the purposes set forth in Section 2035 .010 are all of the following: (a) Oral and written depositions.

(b) Inspections of documents, things, and places.

(c) Physical and mental examinations.

 

2035 .030. (a) One who desires to perpetuate testimony or preserve evidence for the purposes set forth in Section 2035 .010 shall file a verified petition in the superior court of the county of the residence of at least one expected adverse party, or, if no expected adverse party is a resident of the State of California, in the superior court of a county where the action or proceeding may be filed.

(b)The petition shall be titled in the name of the one who desires the perpetuation of testimony or the preservation of evidence. The petition shall set forth all of the following:

   (1) The expectation that the petitioner or the petitioner's
successor in interest will be a party to an action cognizable in a
court of the State of California.
(2) The present inability of the petitioner and, if applicable,
the petitioner's successor in interest either to bring that action or
to cause it to be brought.
(3) The subject matter of the expected action and the petitioner's
involvement. A copy of any written instrument the validity or
construction of which may be called into question, or which is
connected with the subject matter of the proposed discovery, shall be
attached to the petition.
(4) The particular discovery methods described in Section 2035.020
that the petitioner desires to employ.
(5) The facts that the petitioner desires to establish by the
proposed discovery.
(6) The reasons for desiring to perpetuate or preserve these facts
before an action has been filed.
(7) The name or a description of those whom the petitioner expects
to be adverse parties so far as known.
(8) The name and address of those from whom the discovery is to be
sought.
(9) The substance of the information expected to be elicited from
each of those from whom discovery is being sought.

(c) The petition shall request the court to enter an order authorizing the petitioner to engage in discovery by the described methods for the purpose of perpetuating the described testimony or preserving the described evidence.

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2035 .040. (a) The petitioner shall cause service of a notice of the petition under Section 2035 .030 to be made on each natural person or organization named in the petition as an expected adverse party. This service shall be made in the same manner provided for the service of a summons.

(b) The service of the notice shall be accompanied by a copy of the petition. The notice shall state that the petitioner will apply to the court at a time and place specified in the notice for the order requested in the petition.

(c) This service shall be effected at least 20 days prior to the date specified in the notice for the hearing on the petition.

(d) If after the exercise of due diligence, the petitioner is unable to cause service to be made on any expected adverse party named in the petition, the court in which the petition is filed shall make an order for service by publication.

(e) If any expected adverse party served by publication does not appear at the hearing, the court shall appoint an attorney to represent that party for all purposes, including the cross-examination of any person whose testimony is taken by deposition. The court shall order that the petitioner pay the reasonable fees and expenses of any attorney so appointed.

 

2035 .050.(a) If the court determines that all or part of thediscovery requested under this chapter may prevent a failure or delayof justice, it shall make an order authorizing that discovery. Indetermining whether to authorize discovery by a petitioner whoexpects a successor in interest to be a party to an action, the courtshall consider, in addition to other appropriate factors, whether the requested discovery could be conducted by the petitioner'ssuccessor in interest, instead of by the petitioner.

(b) The order shall identify any witness whose deposition may be taken, and any documents, things, or places that may be inspected, and any person whose physical or mental condition may be examined.

(c) Any authorized depositions, inspections, and physical or mental examinations shall then be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this title relating to those methods of discovery in actions that have been filed.

 

2035 .060. If a deposition to perpetuate testimony has been taken either under the provisions of this chapter, or under comparableprovisions of the laws of the state in which it was taken, or the federal courts, or a foreign nation in which it was taken, that deposition may be used, in any action involving the same subject matter that is brought in a court of the State of California, in accordance with Section 2025.620 against any party, or the successor in interest of any party, named in the petition as an expected adverse party.

 

PERPETUATION OF TESTIMONY ON APPEAL
C.C.P.§2036
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2036 .010. If an appeal has been taken from a judgment entered by any court of the State of California, or if the time for taking an appeal has not expired, a party may obtain discovery within the scope delimited by Chapters 2 (commencing with Section 2017.010) and 3 (commencing with Section 2017.710), and subject to the restrictions set forth in Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 2019.010), for the purpose of perpetuating testimony or preserving information for use in the event of further proceedings in that court.

 

2036 .020. The methods available for discovery for the purpose set forth in Section 2036 .010 are all of the following: (a) Oral and written depositions. (b) Inspections of documents, things, and places. (c) Physical and mental examinations.

 

2036 .030. (a) A party who desires to obtain discovery pending appeal shall obtain leave of the court that entered the judgment. This motion shall be made on the same notice to and service of parties as is required for discovery sought in an action pending in that court. (b) The motion for leave to conduct discovery pending appeal shall set forth all of the following: (1) The names and addresses of the natural persons or organizations from whom the discovery is being sought. (2) The particular discovery methods described in Section 2036 .020 for which authorization is being sought. (3) The reasons for perpetuating testimony or preserving evidence.

 

2036 .040. (a) If the court determines that all or part of the discovery requested under this chapter may prevent a failure or delay of justice in the event of further proceedings in the action in that court, it shall make an order authorizing that discovery. (b) The order shall identify any witness whose deposition may be taken, and any documents, things, or places that may be inspected, and any person whose physical or mental condition may be examined. (c) Any authorized depositions, inspections, and physical and mental examinations shall then be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this title relating to these methods of discovery in a pending action.

 

2036 .050. If a deposition to perpetuate testimony has been taken under the provisions of this chapter, it may be used in any later proceeding in accordance with Section 2025.620.